Presentation on theme: "Topic 3 History of Israel I.Deuteronomistic History II.Chronicler’s History III.Later history."— Presentation transcript:
Topic 3 History of Israel I.Deuteronomistic History II.Chronicler’s History III.Later history
I. Deuteronomistic History Content Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings Tells rise and fall of Israel. Conquest – Monarchy – Exile (Babylonian captivity) Origin Written c. 587 BC to explain Exile: Why did Israel come to ruin? Takes theme from “Retribution Theology” in Deuteronomy (cf. Deut. 30:15-20). Faithfulness to covenant brings blessing; unfaithfulness brings curses. Uses older sources/traditions – edits to illustrate theme; Israel’s ruin was due to failure to obey the covenant.
I. Deuteronomistic History A.Joshua: Conquest of Canaan (c. 1250-1200) 1.“Idealistic” view of Conquest a.Quick military conquest of whole land in 3 campaigns. b.Land divided among tribes. (Map of Twelve Tribes of Israel) Map of Twelve Tribes of IsraelMap of Twelve Tribes of Israel 2.Emphasizes God’s gift of the Promised Land a.Miracles show God fighting for his people. b.Covenant renewal ceremony (ch. 24): in response to all God has done for Israel, the people recommit sole allegiance to Yahweh. B.Judges: Struggle for the Land (c. 1200-1020) 1.“Realistic” view of Conquest a.Individual tribes gain foothold in midst of Canaanites. b.Continuing struggle for possession and mastery of land. c.Period of “tribal confederation” – loose league of 12 tribes. 2.“Judges’ Cycle” (Jdg. 2:11-23; BPJM, p. 22) a.Apostasy (abandoning faith – worshipped Canaanite god Baal) b.Oppression (defeat by enemy) c.Repentance (turning around) d.Deliverance (by a judge) e.Peace (until judge dies) 3.Judges – charismatic military heroes (Deborah; Gideon; Samson; etc.); belong more to local tribes than to whole nation.
I. Deuteronomistic History C.United Monarchy (1020-922 BC ) 1.Saul (1 Sam.) Background: Philistine threat to take over Palestine. Map Map Samuel “anoints” Saul as first king. Accomplished little; disobedient; falls from favor. David is groomed as successor; kills Philistine giant Goliath. 2.David (2 Sam.) Moved capital to Jerusalem; prepared to build temple; “Zion theology” regards Jerusalem as God’s chosen city. Military conquests rounded out borders. (Map) Map “Nathan prophecy” (2 Sam. 7): basis for “Davidic theology” that David and his heirs are chosen by God to rule in perpetuity. Bathsheba affair exposes David’s faults (2 Sam. 11). Israel’s most popular king; Golden Age; prototype of messiah. 3.Solomon (1 Kings 1-11) Period of wealth and foreign trade. Main accomplishment: built Temple in Jerusalem (1 Kgs. 6-8). Sponsored wisdom movement. Weaknesses: high taxes; forced labor; many foreign wives.
I. Deuteronomistic History D.Divided Monarchy (1 & 2 Kings) Division in 922 BC: northern tribes refused to acknowledge Solomon’s son as king; chose their own (1 Kgs. 12). 1.Kingdom of Israel – North (Map of Divided Kingdoms) Map of Divided KingdomsMap of Divided Kingdoms 10 tribes – capital at Samaria Kings arise by power – all paganizing King Ahab and foreign wife Jezebel – promoted Baal worship 722 BC – conquered by Assyria; northern tribes scattered and lost (2 Kgs. 17:7-8) 2.Kingdom of Judah – South 2 tribes – capital at Jerusalem Kings descended from David - good kings/bad kings Manasseh – worst king; allowed many pagan practices. Josiah – major reform; tried to purge pagan practices. 587 BC – conquered by Babylonia; temple destroyed; many taken into “Babylonian captivity;” Exile begins.
II. Chronicler’s History Contents 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah. Parallels Deut. Hist., then continues. Origin Written in post-Exilic period (c. 350 B.C.). Perspective similar to P-source.
II. Chronicler’s History A.Exile (587-39 BC ) 1.“Babylonian captivity” – many deported to Mesopotamia. 2.National tragedy (Lam. 1) – homeland in ruins; living in foreign land; has Yahweh been defeated? can he be present in Babylonia? 3.Maintained identity; preserved traditions; produced literature (Pentateuch; Deuteronomistic History). 4.Religion properly called “Judaism” emerged. B.Restoration (539-333 BC ) 1.539 – King Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylonia – liberated Jews; allowed/encouraged return (Ezra 1). 2.Three key figures in return and rebuilding: a.Zerubbabel – rebuilt Temple (516 BC) b.Nehemiah – rebuilt city wall of Jerusalem (445 BC ) c.Ezra – brought Torah (Law of Moses) to Jerusalem (398 BC )
III. Later History A.Hellenistic period (333-166 BC ) 1.333 – Alexander the Great conquered Palestine. 2.Jews ruled by his successors; hellenistic influences. 3.167 – Antiochus IV “Epiphanes” persecuted Jews: outlawed Jewish practices; desecrated temple; demanded worship of Greek gods; etc. 4.Book of Daniel (written c. 165 BC ) Call to faithfulness and assurance of God’s ultimate victory. Dan. 1-6: stories of Daniel/friends as models of faithfulness in earlier persecution. Dan. 7-12: “apocalyptic” visions of God’s victory over pagan kingdoms; final establishment of his own righteous reign; resurrection of the dead and reward of the faithful. (See BPJM, 77.) Probably the latest book of OT. B.Maccabean Revolt & Hasmonean period (166-63 BC) 1.Successful rebellion; achieved Jewish independence. 2.Hasmonean dynasty brought most of Palestine under Jewish control. (Map) Map 3.1 & 2 Maccabees – describe persecution and revolt.