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World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut Hannah Youngwirth.

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Presentation on theme: "World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut Hannah Youngwirth."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut Hannah Youngwirth

2 Who are the Aka Pygmies?  Southwestern Central African Republic and the Northern Congo  Smaller tribe of Mbenga tribe  The Aka are nomadic hunter- gatherer tribes that reside mainly in the rain forests. com/watch?v=dZtxZ 5IWsJk

3 Data of the Region  15 different tribes, app. 30,000 members total  Tight-knit families, “world’s best dad”  The Aka speak their own language ( Akais Diaka, along with the Bantu of the surrounding tribes.

4 Influences  Main instruments are the enzeko (drum), a harp-like geedale-bagongo, a flute-like instrument known as the Hindewhu, and a single string bow known as the melba. Rhythm: hand-clapping and stomping.  Isolation=more singing!  Akais Diaka is characterized by three tones

5 Influences Cont.  Animistic religion, they worship Jengi and Luma  Religious Ceremonies for various occasions  Ceremonies include feasting, dancing, and singing.  They model the hunt.

6 Polyphony  The complex polyphonic music, combined with the contrapuntal communal improvisation, plays a significant role in the lives of the tribe members.  Polyphony: two or more independent melodic voices  Contrapuntal: the relationship between two or more voices independent in contour, rhythm, and harmony

7 The Polyphonic Improvisations of the Aka  The Aka tribes sing to entertain and worship  Yodeling + polyphonic contrapuntal phrases based on four original voices, all sung at different intervals.  Accompanied by most commonly a “2 by 3” rhythm pattern.  Each singer includes their own improvisation and different variations.

8 Aka Music Theory  Melody: The polyphonic melodies begin to emerge as the song continues, each new member of the song making their own unique addition.  Medium: The medium begins with simply flute, then the drums and vocals are introduced. As the song moves on, the vocals take lead in the song.  Harmony: The harmonies are not planned, but rather created as the musical improvisations continue.  Meter: 2 by 3 rhythm pattern  Form: The form is improvised, following the traditional ritualistic pattern  Style: The style is tribal gathering instrumental improvisations  Context: Tribal chanting in which the vocal variations make use of different techniques, rhythms, and tones.

9 Guilluame de Machaut  Leading composer of the Middle Ages  Composed sacred and secular music  He was born in Rheims, Champagne  He was Secretary/Canon to the king  Also a talented poet. =DALBMRwsfxo

10 His Music  Secular work pertains to courtly love  Sacred music is cyclic with no tonal center or extended melodic theme  Fueled the Ars Nova Movement

11 Prominent Works  His motets showcase his expansion of harmonies to contain more intervals of the 3 rd and 6 th.  Best known for the Messe de Nostre Dame, the earliest known setting of Mass belonging to one composer.  This is composed of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Ite missa est.

12 Messe de Nostre Dame  “Mass of Our Lady”-a polyphonic and isorythmic mass  The five movements are the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, followed by the dismissal Ite, missa est.  Translates: Cry, Glory Be to God, I Believe, Holy, Lamb of God, and Go, Be Dismissed

13 “Messe” Music Theory  Melody: The melody is shared between a four-voiced mass, and Machaut’s use of polyphony leads to each voice singing different tunes, contrasting harmonically.  Medium: Voice (4 male voices)  Harmony: The polyphony leads to each voice acting as a contrasting harmony to the other  Meter: isorythmic pulse  Form: Follows the “standard” mass format  Style: Mass/Sacred  Context: Used to open the Mass  Text: Kyrie Eleison (Lord Have Mercy)

14 In Comparison,  Akas composes for recreation, Machaut composes for profit  Akas have limited resources, Machaut has many different instruments and singers available  Machaut has to consider the appeal to the audience  Both are polyphonic  Aka improvise thorughout the work, the messe singers enter as one body  Machaut uses isorythm, Akas have a 2 by 3 rhythm pattern  Both write for entertainment as well as religion  Music is a way of life

15 Just For Funsies…  Learn to Chant like a Pygmy Learn to Chant like a Pygmy

16 References:  "Aka Forest People." Youtube. Youtube, 06 Jul Web. 6 Nov   "The Polyphonic Singing of the Aka Pygmies of Central Africa." Youtube. Youtube, 26 Sep Web. 6 Nov   "Aka people." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 01 Nov Web. 6 Nov   "Mbuti people." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 13 Oct Web. 6 Nov   "Pygmy Music." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 12 Oct Web. 6 Nov   "Baka people (Cameroon and Gabon)."Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 01 Nov Web. 6 Nov   "Messe de Nostre Dame." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 06 May Web. 6 Nov   Luis, Mauro. "Aka Pymgies."Pygmies.Org. Pymgies.Org, 07 Nov Web. 07 Nov   "Polyphonic singing of the Aka Pygmies." ETHNIKKA. ETHNIKKA, 17 Apr Web. 6 Nov   "The Polyphonic Singing of the Aka Pygmies of Central Africa."UNESCO. UNESCO, Web. 6 Nov   "Aka." Countries and Their Culture. Advameg, Inc., n.d. Web. 6 Nov   Schmidt-Jones, Catherine. "Music Texture." Music Theory. CNX.Org, n.d. Web. 6 Nov   McComb, Todd. "Guillaume de Machaut (c )." Medieval. N.p., 06 Nov Web. 6 Nov   Kaplan, Mitchell. "The Fourteenth Century Composer." Classical Forums. Classical Forums, 24 jul Web. 6 Nov   "Guillaume de Machaut." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., Web. 6 Nov


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