Presentation on theme: "World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut"— Presentation transcript:
1World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut Hannah Youngwirth
2Who are the Aka Pygmies?Southwestern Central African Republic and the Northern CongoSmaller tribe of Mbenga tribeThe Aka are nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes that reside mainly in the rain forests.
3Data of the Region 15 different tribes, app. 30,000 members total Tight-knit families, “world’s best dad”The Aka speak their own language (Akais Diaka , along with the Bantu of the surrounding tribes.
4InfluencesMain instruments are the enzeko (drum), a harp-like geedale-bagongo, a flute-like instrument known as the Hindewhu, and a single string bow known as the melba. Rhythm: hand-clapping and stomping.Isolation=more singing!Akais Diaka is characterized by three tones
5Influences Cont. Animistic religion, they worship Jengi and Luma Religious Ceremonies for various occasionsCeremonies include feasting, dancing, and singing.They model the hunt.
6PolyphonyThe complex polyphonic music, combined with the contrapuntal communal improvisation, plays a significant role in the lives of the tribe members.Polyphony: two or more independent melodic voicesContrapuntal: the relationship between two or more voices independent in contour, rhythm, and harmony
7The Polyphonic Improvisations of the Aka The Aka tribes sing to entertain and worshipYodeling + polyphonic contrapuntal phrases based on four original voices, all sung at different intervals.Accompanied by most commonly a “2 by 3” rhythm pattern.Each singer includes their own improvisation and different variations.
8Aka Music TheoryMelody: The polyphonic melodies begin to emerge as the song continues, each new member of the song making their own unique addition.Medium: The medium begins with simply flute, then the drums and vocals are introduced. As the song moves on, the vocals take lead in the song.Harmony: The harmonies are not planned, but rather created as the musical improvisations continue.Meter: 2 by 3 rhythm patternForm: The form is improvised, following the traditional ritualistic patternStyle: The style is tribal gathering instrumental improvisationsContext: Tribal chanting in which the vocal variations make use of different techniques, rhythms, and tones.
9Guilluame de Machaut Leading composer of the Middle Ages Composed sacred and secular musicHe was born in Rheims, ChampagneHe was Secretary/Canon to the kingAlso a talented poet.
10His Music Secular work pertains to courtly love Sacred music is cyclic with no tonal center or extended melodic themeFueled the Ars Nova Movement
11Prominent WorksHis motets showcase his expansion of harmonies to contain more intervals of the 3rd and 6th.Best known for the Messe de Nostre Dame, the earliest known setting of Mass belonging to one composer.This is composed of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Ite missa est.
12Messe de Nostre Dame“Mass of Our Lady”-a polyphonic and isorythmic massThe five movements are the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, followed by the dismissal Ite, missa est.Translates: Cry, Glory Be to God, I Believe, Holy, Lamb of God, and Go, Be Dismissed
13“Messe” Music TheoryMelody: The melody is shared between a four-voiced mass, and Machaut’s use of polyphony leads to each voice singing different tunes, contrasting harmonically.Medium: Voice (4 male voices)Harmony: The polyphony leads to each voice acting as a contrasting harmony to the otherMeter: isorythmic pulseForm: Follows the “standard” mass formatStyle: Mass/SacredContext: Used to open the MassText: Kyrie Eleison (Lord Have Mercy)
14In Comparison, Both are polyphonic Akas composes for recreation, Machaut composes for profitAkas have limited resources, Machaut has many different instruments and singers availableMachaut has to consider the appeal to the audienceBoth are polyphonicAka improvise thorughout the work, the messe singers enter as one bodyMachaut uses isorythm, Akas have a 2 by 3 rhythm patternBoth write for entertainment as well as religionMusic is a way of life
16References:"Aka Forest People." Youtube. Youtube, 06 Jul Web. 6 Nov <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRVPieyKv8M&feature=related>."The Polyphonic Singing of the Aka Pygmies of Central Africa." Youtube. Youtube, 26 Sep Web. 6 Nov <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKLxFmnYO_I>."Aka people." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 01 Nov Web. 6 Nov <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aka_people>."Mbuti people." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 13 Oct Web. 6 Nov <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mbuti>."Pygmy Music." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 12 Oct Web. 6 Nov <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_music>."Baka people (Cameroon and Gabon)."Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 01 Nov Web. 6 Nov <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baka_(Cameroon_and_Gabon)>."Messe de Nostre Dame." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 06 May Web. 6 Nov <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messe_de_Nostre_Dame>.Luis, Mauro. "Aka Pymgies."Pygmies.Org. Pymgies.Org, 07 Nov Web. 07 Nov <http://www.pygmies.org/aka/>."Polyphonic singing of the Aka Pygmies." ETHNIKKA. ETHNIKKA, 17 Apr Web. 6 Nov <http://www.ethnikka.org/2011/04/polyphonic-singing-of-aka-pygmies.html>."The Polyphonic Singing of the Aka Pygmies of Central Africa."UNESCO. UNESCO, Web. 6 Nov <http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?lg=en&pg=00011&RL=00082>."Aka ." Countries and Their Culture. Advameg, Inc., n.d. Web. 6 Nov <http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Brazil-to-Congo-Republic-of/Aka.html>.Schmidt-Jones, Catherine. "Music Texture." Music Theory. CNX.Org, n.d. Web. 6 Nov <http://www.aboutmusictheory.com/music-texture.html>.McComb, Todd. "Guillaume de Machaut (c )." Medieval. N.p., 06 Nov Web. 6 Nov <http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/composers/machaut.html>.Kaplan, Mitchell. "The Fourteenth Century Composer." Classical Forums. Classical Forums, 24 jul Web. 6 Nov <http://www.classicalforums.com/articles/Fourteenth_Century_Composer.html>."Guillaume de Machaut." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., Web. 6 Nov <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/354543/Guillaume-de-Machaut>.