Presentation on theme: "Tribals in Madhya Pradesh (Hindi: मध्य प्रदेश में आदिवासी ) constitute a sizeable population. The population of Tribals in Madhya Pradesh is 12.233 million."— Presentation transcript:
Tribals in Madhya Pradesh (Hindi: मध्य प्रदेश में आदिवासी ) constitute a sizeable population. The population of Tribals in Madhya Pradesh is million constituting 20.27% of the total population of Madhya Pradesh ( million), according to the 2001 census. There were 46 recognized Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as “Special Primitive Tribal Groups” in the State.
The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhariya, Halba, Kaul, Mariya, and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua and Mandla districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi and Shahdol districts 30 to 50 percent population is of tribes. Maximum population is that of Gond tribes.
The differences in the tribal community, spread over in various parts of the state, it's clearly seen not only on the basis of their heredity, lifestyle and cultural traditions, but also from their social, economic structure, religious beliefs and their language and speech. Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has not only been largely cut-off from the mainstream of development. Madhya Pradesh holds 1st rank among all the States/UTs in terms of ST population and 12th rank in respect of the proportion of ST population to total population.
Name of tribe Sub-tribe Population (Census 1981) Districts inhabited Gond PardhanPardhan, Agariya, Ojha, Nagarchi, SolhasAgariyaOjha NagarchiSolhas All districts, mainly spread on both banks of Narmada River in Vindhyas and SatpuraNarmada RiverVindhyasSatpura BhilBarelaBarela, Bhilala, PatliyaBhilalaPatliya DharDhar, Jhabua, East NimarJhabuaEast Nimar Baiga BijhwarBijhwar, Narotia, Bharotiya, Nahar, Rai Bhaina, Kadh BhainaNarotiaBharotiya NaharRai BhainaKadh Bhaina MandlaMandla, BalaghatBalaghat Korku MovasirumaMovasiruma, Nahala, Vavari, BodoyaNahala VavariBodoya East NimarEast Nimar, Hoshangabad, Betul, ChhindwaraHoshangabadBetul Chhindwara Bhari a BhumiyaBhumiya, Bhuihar, PandoBhuiharPando195490ChhindwaraChhindwara, JabalpurJabalpur HalbaHalbiHalbi, BastariyaBastariya236375Balaghat KaulRohiyaRohiya, RauthailRauthail123811RewaRewa, Satna, Shahdol, SidhiSatnaShahdolSidhi Mariy a Abujh MariyaAbujh Mariya, Dandami Mariya, MetakoiturDandami MariyaMetakoitur JabalpurJabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Shahdol, ChhindwaraMandlaPannaShahdol Chhindwara Sahari ya – GunaGuna, Shivpuri, Morena, Gwalior, Vidisha, RajgarhShivpuriMorenaGwalior VidishaRajgarh
Baiga is a tribe found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand states of India. The largest number of Baigas is found in Baiga- chuk in Mandla district and Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh. They have sub-castes – Bijhwar, Narotia, Bharotiya, Nahar, Rai Bhaina, and Kadh Bhaina. Their population as of Census 1981 was 248,949.
The Baiga tribes practice shifting cultivation in forest areas. They say they never ploughed the Earth, because it would be like scratching the breast of their Mother, and how could they possibly ask Mother to produce food from the same patch of earth time and time again – she would have become weakened. That’s why Baigas used to lived a semi- nomadic life, and practiced Bewar cultivation (slash & burn) – out of respect, not aggression. Until fairly recently the Baigas practiced 'dahiya' cultivation, that is, slash and burn. Thousands of squire miles of sal forests have been clean destroyed by them in the progress of their dahiya cultivation, the ground being afterwards occupied by dense scrub of low sal species springing from the stumps. The Baigas are courageous woodsman and hunters.23shifting cultivationslash and burnsal forests23
The Baiga tribe in Madhya Pradesh is known for its unique culture. They do not interact even with other tribals like the Gonds, believe in a hand-to-mouth existence, and do not try to access education, eat outside their community, or associate with others. After a death in the family, the Baigas just leave the house and build another. They are totally dependent on the jungle, they do not engage in tendu patta collection, which is a major livelihood provider in Madhya Pradesh.
One of the tribes for whom tattooing is an integral part of their lifestyle is the Baiga tribe. This tribe inhabits the dense hilly forests in the eastern part of the Satpuras, in Shahdol, Bilaspur, Rajnandgaon, Mandla, and Balaghat districts. The Biagas are of Dravidian stock and are one of eight prime tribes of M.P.4 SatpurasShahdolBilaspurRajnandgaonMandlaBalaghatDravidian4 It is believed that this tribe is an offshoot of the Bhuiya tribe of Chhota Nagpur. A distinguishing feature of the Baiga tribe is that their women are famous for sporting tattoos of various kinds on almost all parts of their body. The women who work as tattooing artists belong to the Ojha, Badni and Dewar tribes of M.P., and are called Godharins. They are extremely knowledgeable about the different types of tattoos preferred by various tribes. Their mothers traditionally pass on this knowledge to them. Tattooing amongst the tribals commences with the approach of winter and continues until summer.4BhuiyaChhota NagpurtattoosOjhaBadni DewarGodharins4
The baiga takes coarse food and shows no extravagance in this aspect. They eat coarse grain, kodo, and kutki, drink pej, eat little flour and are normally content with what little that they get. One of the prime foods is pej that can be made from grounding macca or from the water left from boiling rice. Local people gave testimony that this food is much more better and healthier than many other food that they eat. Also, beyond doubt they eat several items from the forest that includes primarily Chirota Bhaji, Gular leaves such as Chirota, chinch, chakora, sarroota, peepal etc. They also eat BirarKand, Kadukand and other rhizomes. Mushroom is also a delicacy. Numerous fruits such as mango, char, jamun, tendu are also eaten. They hunt as well, primarily fish and small mammals.6kodokutkipej6
Bhils (Hindi:, Urdu: : ) are primarily an Adivasi people of Central India. Bhils are also settled in the Tharparkar District of Sindh, Pakistan. They speak the Bhil languages, a subgroup of the Western Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages. Bhils are listed as Adivasi residents of the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra,and Rajasthan in western and central India as well as in Tripura in far-eastern India on the border with Bangladesh. Bhils are divided into a number of endogamous territorial divisions, which in turn have a number of clans and lineages. Most Bhils now speak the language of the region they reside in, such as Marathi and Gujarati.6 The Ghoomar dance is one well-known aspect of Bhil culture.
The Bhil are now mainly a community of settled farmers, with a significant minority who are landless agricultural labourers. A significant subsidiary occupation remains hunting and gathering. The Bhil are now largely Hindu, with Nidhi and Tadvi Bhil following Islam, and few sub-groups in the Dangs following Christainity. They continue to worship tribal deities such as Mogra Deo and Sitla Matta.1011communityfarmersHinduNidhiTadvi BhilIslamDangsChristainity1011
Historically, the Bhil were tribals, residing in deep forests and experts in hunting: a fearsome tribe. In feudal and colonial times, many Bhils were employed by the ruling Rajputs in various capacities, e.g. as Shikaris because of their knowledge of the terrain. Many had even become warriors in armies. They were in the Mewar army of Maharana Pratap Singh and like Chhatrapati Shivaji, were experts in guerilla warfare which the Mughal Empire had so much trouble handling. Today, there is a Mewar Bhil Corps.'7RajputsShikarisMewarMaharana PratapSinghChhatrapatiShivajiMughal Empire7 Khadem (tribe)Khadem (tribe) The Khadem (Rajasthani: ख़ादिम, Urdu: خادم) The name "Khadem" comes from the Arabic khadem for service or care. The Khadem of Ajmer are converted Muslims from the Bheel religion In the case the court hold as under "that Laikha and his brohther Taikha became muslim in samvat 1175 (samvat chandra bhat), It was samvat (vikrami) 1265 then Khadem are the descended of Laikha and Taikha, were bhil. Laikha's islamic name was Fakharuddin, Taikha's name was Mohammad Yadgaar... Khadem of Ajmer Are Converted Muslim Form The Bheel Religion ( From The Book - "The Shrine And Cult Of Mu'in al- din Chishti of Ajmer" By P. M. Currie (Author)Oxford University Press) Page