9Eastern U.S. language groups xxxxxAlgonquianAlgonquianSiouanCaddoanIroquoianGulf (Muskogean)TimucuaAlgonquianSiouanIroquoianAlgonquianIroquoianCaddoanGulfTimucua
10Western U.S. language groups xxxxxSalishAlgonquianPenutianSiouanAthaba-scanAlgonquianSiouanCaddoanAztec-TanoanAthabascan (Southern)SalishPenutianHokanKeresSiouanHokanAztec-TanoanCaddoanPenutianAlgonquianAthabascanAztec-TanoanHokanKeresAztec-TanoanCaddoanAthabascanHokan
11Alaska language groups xxxxxAlaska language groupsInuitInuitDenéDené(NorthernAthabascan)Inuit(Eskimo)AleutInuitInuitDenéAleutAleut
12Canada language groups xxxxxCanada language groupsInuitDenéAlgonquianDené(Athabascan)InuitSiouanIroquoianSalishWakashanTsimshianKootenaiInuitDenéInuitDenéInuitDenéInuitWaka-shanAlgonquianAlgonquianSalishSiouanAlgonquianAlgonquianIroquoian
14Studying Native History/Geography Not only about racial conflict, but the colonization of nationsNot only about the U.S. government, but the origins of the United StatesNot only about federal/state policies, but the land base where they occurNot only looks at political/economic, but at European cultural underpinnings
16Who is an “Indian”? Ancestors lived in America, before the arrival of Europeans.Who is considered to bean Indian by the community.Who self-defines as an Indian.Federal court decisions haveshifted definitions over timeWho is an “Indian”?
17Blood Quantum (% of tribal ancestry) Pushed by federal Bureauof Indian Affairs (1/4)Tribal govt’s set today(often internalized)Intermarriage can“fractionalize” tribe
18Racial Complexities Native Americans can “appear” white, black, etc. Multiracialtribal nationsSeminole, Lumbee, etc.Mixed categoriesMétis (French),Mestizo (Spanish), etc.
19Who is an “Indian”? Categories Defined by…. What about… RACIAL Blood Quantum (biology) “Mixed bloods,”AssimilatedCULTURAL Tribally raised/accepted Adopted Indians,White ‘wannabes’GEOGRAPHICAL Reservation residents Urban Indians,Rez whites
20“Racial composition is not always dispositive in determining who are Indians for the purposes of Indian law. In dealing with Indians, the federal government is dealing with members or descendants of political entities, that is, Indian tribes, not with persons of a particular race. Tribal membership as determined by the Indian tribe or community itself is often an essential element.”— Handbook of Federal Indian Law
21Top 10 Things to Say to a White Person Upon First Meeting 10. How much white are you?9. I’m part white myself, you know.8. I learned all your people’s ways in the Boy Scouts.My great-great-grandmother was a full-blooded white-American princess.6. Funny, you don’t look white.5. Where’s your powdered wig and knickers?4. Do you live in a covered wagon?3. What’s the meaning behind the square dance?2. What’s your feeling about river-boat casinos? Do theyreally help your people, or are they just a short-term fix?1. Oh wow, I really love your hair! Can I touch it?
222000 CENSUS 1.5% of U.S. population American Indian orAlaska Native alone 2.5 million(26% higher than 1990) (0.9%)In combinationwith other “races” million (0.6%)Total = million (1.5%)(110% higher than 1990)
24Native Population Distribution 100 million acres =4% of U.S.,BUT…..
25Modern Indian Lands = 4% of U.S.? 322 entities in Lower 48 = 56 million acresBUT much of rez land is allotted ( non-Indian ownership)
26Modern Indian Lands = 4% of U.S.? 229 Alaska villages =44 million acresBUT Alaska Nativelands held as village ®ional corporations,not as sovereignreservations
27Federal Recognition of Tribes Historical Written or oral history proves a tribe/nation.2. Demographical Members not from another tribe.3. Geographical Lived and continue to live in a distinct area.4. Political Record of continuous government or leadership.
28“Trust Responsibility” Direct relationship between federal & tribal gov’tsTribal land put “in trust” to become reservationProtects reservation from state & local gov’tsPuts tribe at mercy of federal “trustee”
29Sovereignty Paramount; supreme Having supreme rank or power 3. Self-governing(American Heritage Dictionary)