Presentation on theme: "Geography / American Indian Studies 322 Professor Zoltán Grossman Professor Zoltán Grossman Professor Zoltán Grossman Introduction to Native Geographies."— Presentation transcript:
Geography / American Indian Studies 322 Professor Zoltán Grossman Professor Zoltán Grossman Professor Zoltán Grossman Introduction to Native Geographies
No “Indians” before 1492 Diversity in… Tribes/bands Languages Governments Cultures Spiritual beliefs Resource use Land control There goes the neighborhood…
American Indian or Indian Native American or Native TribalIndigenous Nation names American Indian or Indian Native American or Native TribalIndigenous Nation names Aboriginal First Nations 4th World Aboriginal First Nations 4th World AmerindianAutochthonousAmerindianAutochthonous Pros & Cons of Terms
Native Americans Racial category? (“minority”) Ethno-cultural groups Economic status Groups with a land base Autonomous nations
Cultural Areas Arctic Subarctic Northwest Coast Plateau Great Basin California Plains Southwest Southeast Northeast
Major Early Language & Cultural Groups
xxxxxGulf Algonquian Algonquian Iroquoian Iroquoian Siouan Caddoan Eastern U.S. language groups Algonquian Timucua Algonquian Siouan Caddoan Iroquoian Gulf (Muskogean) Timucua
xxxxx Algonquian Siouan Caddoan Aztec-Tanoan Athabascan (Southern) Salish Penutian Hokan Keres Siouan Western U.S. language groups Caddoan Caddoan Salish Algonquian Algonquian Aztec-Tanoan Athabascan Athabascan Hokan Aztec-Tanoan Aztec-Tanoan Hokan Hokan Penutian Penutian Athaba-scan Keres Siouan
xxxxx Alaska language groups Dené Inuit Inuit Inuit Aleut Dené Aleut Inuit Dené (Northern Athabascan) Inuit (Eskimo) Aleut
Studying Native History/Geography Not only about racial conflict, but the colonization of nationsNot only about racial conflict, but the colonization of nations Not only about the U.S. government, but the origins of the United StatesNot only about the U.S. government, but the origins of the United States Not only about federal/state policies, but the land base where they occurNot only about federal/state policies, but the land base where they occur Not only looks at political/economic, but at European cultural underpinningsNot only looks at political/economic, but at European cultural underpinnings
Ancestors lived in America, before the arrival of Europeans. Who is considered to be an Indian by the community. Who self-defines as an Indian. Federal court decisions have shifted definitions over time Who is an “Indian”?
Pushed by federal Bureau of Indian Affairs (1/4) Tribal govt’s set today (often internalized) Intermarriage can “fractionalize” tribe Blood Quantum (% of tribal ancestry)
Native Americans can “appear” white, black, etc. Multiracial tribal nations -Seminole, Lumbee, etc. Mixed categories -Métis (French), -Mestizo (Spanish), etc. Racial Complexities
CategoriesDefined by….What about… RACIALBlood Quantum (biology)“Mixed bloods,” Assimilated CULTURALTribally raised/acceptedAdopted Indians, White ‘wannabes’ GEOGRAPHICALReservation residents Urban Indians, Rez whites Who is an “Indian”?
“Racial composition is not always dispositive in determining who are Indians for the purposes of Indian law. In dealing with Indians, the federal government is dealing with members or descendants of political entities, that is, Indian tribes, not with persons of a particular race. Tribal membership as determined by the Indian tribe or community itself is often an essential element.” — Handbook of Federal Indian Law
Top 10 Things to Say to a White Person Upon First Meeting 10. How much white are you? 9. I’m part white myself, you know. 8. I learned all your people’s ways in the Boy Scouts. 7.My great-great-grandmother was a full-blooded white- American princess. 6. Funny, you don’t look white. 5. Where’s your powdered wig and knickers? 4. Do you live in a covered wagon? 3. What’s the meaning behind the square dance? 2. What’s your feeling about river-boat casinos? Do they really help your people, or are they just a short-term fix? 1. Oh wow, I really love your hair! Can I touch it?
2000 CENSUS 1.5% of U.S. population American Indian or Alaska Native alone 2.5 million (26% higher than 1990) (0.9%) In combination with other “races” 1.6 million (0.6%) Total =4.1 million (1.5%) (110% higher than 1990)
Native Population Distribution 100 million acres = 4% of U.S., BUT…..
Modern Indian Lands = 4% of U.S.? 322 entities in Lower 48 = 56 million acres BUT much of rez land is allotted ( non-Indian ownership)
Modern Indian Lands = 4% of U.S.? 229 Alaska villages = 44 million acres BUT Alaska Native lands held as village & regional corporations, not as sovereign reservations
1.Historical Written or oral history proves a tribe/nation. 2. Demographical Members not from another tribe. 3. Geographical Lived and continue to live in a distinct area. 4. Political Record of continuous government or leadership. Federal Recognition of Tribes
“Trust Responsibility” Direct relationship between federal & tribal gov’ts Tribal land put “in trust” to become reservation Protects reservation from state & local gov’ts Puts tribe at mercy of federal “trustee”
Sovereignty 1.Paramount; supreme 2.Having supreme rank or power rank or power 3. Self-governing (American Heritage Dictionary) (American Heritage Dictionary)
Reservations Percentages by County
19 states above U.S. average (1.5%) MN 1.6% WI 1.3%
Population by County
Top 10 states = 62% of Native pop.
Top 10 cities = 8% of Native pop.
Canadian Treaties 1,200 tiny reserves today
Inuit (Eskimo) territory of Nunavut Canada 1999