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Tribe-State Relations A short case study on Jordan.

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1 Tribe-State Relations A short case study on Jordan

2 Basics British mandate Creation of Transjordanian state Monarchy under Emir Abdallah From Talal to Hussein, 1951- 1953 (Hussein dies 1999) Qualified Independence (1946)

3 Population Pre-1948: Settled peasants Semi-nomadic tribal confederations Post-1948 Abdallah claims and takes West Bank, parts of Jerusalem Eastern part of Kingdom now contains 94% of land but 30% population Palestinian West Bank families and refugees (458,000 out of total pop of about 1.5 million) Post 1967 Population, today  About 5 million people  About 30-45% of Jordan’s population descended from tribal groups (Bedouin and non-Bedouin)  70% Urban

4 Reproduced from The tribes of Jordan at the beginning of the 21 st century by Ghazi bin Muhammad bin Talal (Amann: Turab Press, 1999) Map of the tribes of Jordan (today)

5 Tensions Hashemite officials vs local elites Town vs country “Jordanian” vs “Palestinian”

6 Tribes and Politics: the military Integrating tribes  John Glubb and the Arab Legion WWII economic benefits to tribes Bedouin loyalty to the state  1957 Zerka “uprising”: renewal of tribal loyalties  “Black September” 1970: Monarchy vs the Palestinian national movement (PLO)

7 Tribes and politics: Ideologies Jordanian national identity vs the Palestinian “other”: tribal components King Hussein as “sheikh of the Jordanian tribe”  Tribal “set pieces” and visits Themes in Jordanian national identity Pre 1989 Arab revolt, family lineage of Hashemite kingdom, and Jordan’s tribal character Post 1989 Hashemite lineage and Arab- Muslim unity  External consumption emphasizes tribal identity (tourism ministry)  Internal consumption: “Jordan First” (Abdallah)- “Unity in Diversity!” Bedouin efforts to create national, print community Jordanian military in Maan patrol under a “Jordan First” billboard. Photo:

8 notes Both states and tribe are “security-oriented collectives” whose paramount concerns are defense and economic security

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