Presentation on theme: "The Gathering TRIBAL STAR’s mission is to ENSURE that Tribal foster youth are connected to CULTURE, community and resources throughout their transition."— Presentation transcript:
The Gathering TRIBAL STAR’s mission is to ENSURE that Tribal foster youth are connected to CULTURE, community and resources throughout their transition to adulthood thereby increasing POSITIVE outcomes for Tribal Foster YOUTH. Tribal STAR is a program of the Academy for Professional Excellence at San Diego State University School of Social Work
Stepping onto the Path * Understanding The Past * Valuing The Present * Creating The Vision
Welcome & Introductions Why are you here today? ~ Introduction of Clans ~ Introduction to materials
MODULE 1 History and Purpose of the Tribal STAR Project
Funded by the California Department of Social Services, Tribal STAR is a result of a partnership between the SDSU School of Social Work, Academy for Professional Excellence and: Southern Indian Health Council SD HHSA Indian Specialty Unit & Independent Living Unit Indian Health Council Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel YMCA YFS South Bay Community Services San Diego Youth Services Intertribal Court of Southern California, Southern CA Tribal Chairmen’s Association San Bernardino County Child & Family Services Orange County Social Services Agency Casey Family Programs, San Diego Field Office Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians Pala Band of Mission Indians, Social Services Dept. Valley Oaks Foster Family Agency County of San Diego, Office of Education, Foster Youth Services
Training & Technical Assistance Training Opportunities: The Gathering (training for frontline workers) The Summit (training for management/supervisory staff) The Collaborative (adapted ½ day training) Let the Spirit Lead: ICWA, In the Best Interest of the Child The Other Side of ICWA Statewide Training for Trainers Series Statewide Training for MSW Students Technical Assistance includes: Independent Living / Trainer Forums Tribal STAR website Drumbeats newsletter Community based collaborative support
What do we know about the needs of Tribal Youth? Dropout rates range from 45-85% High teen pregnancy rates (45% before the age of 20) Unemployment rates of up to 80% on the reservations 35% of Tribal youth experience out of home placement (more than any other racial group)
The Landscape of California CA has the largest Native American population in the nation (333,511 / 2000 Census, US Census Bureau / www.nahc.ca.gov) CA is the State with the largest number of foster youth
Chafee Guidelines “ States must make benefits and services available to Indian children in the state on the same basis as other children. ” “ State must certify in its plan that: state will consult and coordinate with each Indian tribe in the state. ” * all CA Tribal Chairs received a copy of the Proposed State Plan for Fiscal Years 2001-2004
How are Tribal Foster Youth Affected By The … CFSR (Child & Family Services Review) SIP (System Improvement Plan) ICWA (Indian Child Welfare Act)
What outcomes does your county intend to improve in the area of Tribal Youth & their families? What goals do you have to improve services for Tribal youth?
What Events Have Shaped Our Current Cross-Cultural Relations With Native Communities?
Indian History 1492-1800European Conquest 1789-1871 Pre-Reservation Period 1871-1928Early Reservation Era 1934-1953Indian Reorganization 1953-1968Termination Era 1968-1980Self Determination 1980-nowThe Present
The “ Indian Problem vs. Euro-American Problem ” For four centuries, non-Indians in North America have had an “ Indian problem ”. In its most basic form, this problem has had three aspects:
1.Economic: how best to secure access to Indian resources, land in particular 2.Cultural Transformation: how best to accomplish the cultural transformation of Indians into non-Indians 3.Political: how to maintain effective controls so that the problems 1 and 2 could be more satisfactorily resolved
Euro-American problem In essence, Tribal survival: the maintenance of particular sets of social relations, more or less distinct cultural orders, and some measure of political autonomy in the face of invasion, conquest and loss of power. The working out of these two conflicting agendas has given context and shape to Indian-White relations.
An Apology Remarks of Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs Department of the Interior at the Ceremony Acknowledging the 175th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs September 8, 2000
Another Apology In 2001, the Child Welfare League of America acknowledged wrongful involvement in the 1950 ’ s/1960 ’ s effort to facilitate the adoption of Indian children into White homes for the purpose of “ saving ” these children from their own culture and language.
What are some of the contributions of Native Americans to contemporary society?
Purpose The purpose of ICWA is to protect the best interests of the Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families by establishing minimum federal standards for the removal of Indian children from their parents or Indian custodians.
Intent of ICWA Prevent the unwarranted breakup of American Indian families Recognize tribal jurisdiction to make custody decisions Establish minimum federal standards that are to be followed when children are removed
Placement Preferences For Out of Home Placement 1. Extended family 2. Foster care licensed by Tribe FOSTER CARE 3. Indian foster home licensed by State 4. Institution approved by Tribe 5. Other foster homes
Placement Preferences For Pre-Adoptive and Adoptive (Permanent) Placements 1. Extended family 2. Tribal member Permanent Placement 3. Other Indian family
What is your role in ensuring ICWA compliance? Case Worker Follow ICWA and local protocols for notification and placement IL Staff, Probation Officer, Case Manager, Counselor, Education staff etc. If there is any reason to believe youth is a member of a tribe, report to the CW case worker and collaborate with local ICWA staff.
Group Discussion Who are you and where are you from?
What are the differences in the value systems between American Indian and Western Mainstream Culture? How does this impact our thoughts and practice when providing services to Tribal youth and families?
(Tribally) Traditional: People who hold onto their native culture tightly, never being forced to assimilate into another culture. (Western) Acculturated: A person who changes his or her cultural identity, values, beliefs, practices and norms just to get experiences with a different culture. (Western) Assimilated: People who choose to give up most of their old ways, in order to adopt another dominant culture’s beliefs, values, and norms. (Horejsi et. al., 1987)
Traditional Indian Values vs. All American Values Mainstream Values Clan/communal emphasisIndividual Emphasis SharingWinning Present-time orientationFuture Orientation SpiritualisticMaterialistic Time non-awarenessTime awareness Harmony with natureConquest of nature PassiveAggressive Giving/spendingAcquiring/saving Appreciates/honors silenceAvoids silence Respect of other religionsConverting/proselytizing (Source: The Indian Child Welfare Act, Handbook by Rose-Margaret Orrantia; Cultural Awareness; the Indian Perspective, Marilyn Robinson).
Clan Discussion What can you do to be more culturally sensitive when providing services to Tribal youth?
Presentation Listening to Those Who Have Been Affected by Foster Care What do youth and families feel when they are in the system? What do youth experience? What would help us provide more effective services in the future?
Events to Consider as Important for Tribal Foster Youth Naming ceremonies Sweat lodge and other purification ceremonies Sundance and other renewal ceremonies End of life services, wakes, burials End of cycle after death ceremonies
Resilience A New Word; An Old Meaning Spirituality Family Strength Elders Ceremonial Rituals Oral Traditions Tribal Identity Support Networks
The Talking Circle Process Every individual participates and some can choose not to speak When someone else is speaking it is our turn to listen This is our time to speak our thoughts, our truth The process is not complete until everyone has participated (Por, G., 2005)
What do we know about adolescent development? What do we know about American Indian adolescent development? What is the purpose of American Indian puberty rites? How might unresolved grief and loss play a role in one ’ s development?
Typical Independent Living Development Cameron Hill Associates, 1997
Independent Living Development for Young Adults in Care Cameron Hill Associates, 1997
Western Contemporary vs. American Indian Society Traditional Systems CHILD Name given baptism Learns to use the toilet Goes on first date Learns to drive a car and obtains drivers license Gets first job CHILD Initiation into clan, moiety, or subgroup by ceremony Learns to assist with family chores Puberty rites: learns gender-specific roles, family, community, and tribal expectations First hunt or first menses Naming ceremony – establishing identity in relation to family, clan, moiety, and tribal context
Western Contemporary vs. American Indian Society Traditional Systems ADULT Turns 18 and Leaves for college ADULT Participates in Tribal community decision making Participates as adults in ceremonies
SENIOR CITIZEN Turns 65 Western Contemporary vs. American Indian Society Traditional Systems ELDER Turns 55 Is venerated by community and acknowledged as an elder
Comparison of Developmental Stages of Youth Clan Activity Normal ~ Youth in ~ American Adolescent Foster Care Indian Youth in Foster Care What issues affect stages of development for Native youth in foster care? Compare the developmental stages and fill in your answers in your Workbook (Module 7).
Recommendations for Workers Build on young peoples ’ connection to all living entities Encourage and openly discuss their spiritual development Make use of the outdoors. Recognize the vital role played by elders, aunts, uncles, and other extended family, blood-clan-moiety involvement and encourage their participation in these groups ’ activities.
Encourage generosity of spirit. Incorporate more cooperative learning activities. Respect their individualism. Allow for a longer response time. Be more flexible with timelines. Respect that learning can also occur through listening and in silence. (Source: Munsell, G. 2004 Tribal Approaches to Transition: The John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Program, NRCYS)
Activity Drawing Our Youth What are the needs of adolescent youth? BLUE What are the needs of adolescent Tribal youth? RED What organizations/individuals/resources can address these needs? GREEN
Positive Outcomes from a Tribal Perspective Youth are contributing members of the community Youth have a sense of belonging to the community Youth are actively connected to Tribal and non-Tribal resources to achieve inter-dependency Youth recognize the importance of community involvement Youth are continuously exposed to culture, customs, and traditions Achieve cultural permanency through modification of parental rights (flexibility) Non-Tribal guardians of Tribal youth have access to Tribal cultural & community resources and allow youth to experience and explore their cultural identity
Ways Which Tribal Youth In Foster Care May Behave More traditional youth may not question the position they find themselves. Youth may be too intimidated by service providers or the bureaucracy they represent to request services. Those who apply for and are denied services may not complain or assert themselves. Youth may present to service providers, expecting those providers, like traditional healers, to know their needs, while they sit passively.
What surprised you about the needs of adolescent American Indian youth? What can you do differently as a result of learning this information?
What are examples of successful local collaboration? What makes them successful? What ’ s the difference between collaboration, coordination, and cooperation?
CollaborationCoordinationCooperation Commitment to common mission Understanding of compatible mission Individual interpretations of mission Mutual goals and plans Some planning and division of roles Informal structure Well-defined communication channels operating on many different levels Communication channels established Information shared as needed Resources contributed and pooled or jointly secured Resources availableLimited or no resources (Jones, et al., 1999).
Clan Discussion Review: “Positive Outcomes for Tribal Youth” Discuss: How could collaborations support successful outcomes for your agencies, your county, your youth?
Culturally Responsive Communities, Tribes and Native Organizations Increase Cross- Cultural Understanding Through the Following: Establish a welcoming environment Assist local organization/tribes/communities that enhance cross- cultural understanding Sponsor regular meetings with the community/leaders Assist organizational personnel with the involvement of Elders Provide an annual open house /workshop Develop mechanisms to coordinate services of all local programs Provide encouragement and support for community members who show an interest & involve them as resources
Who to Contact First? ICWA representative or Tribal contact A personal visit, or phone call is better than a letter or an email. -Is anyone in the community working with Tribal foster youth? -Who do people go to for advice when working with Tribal foster youth? -Who should I contact at Tribal council / what is the best way to approach them?
Tips for Following Protocol Demonstrate respect for Elders & leaders Schedule meetings and events around meals Publicly acknowledge Tribal participation in meetings & make introductions Model a spirit of cross-cultural collaboration by including and recognizing all efforts
Values and Protocol That Enhance Collaboration Personal connection will go farther than a written letter Accepting food and drink and scheduling meetings during mealtimes cultivates trust Be natural – but not intrusive, remember that communication within communities is also non- verbal
Tribal STAR Best Practice Model Circle of Care ICWA Worker Probation Officer Community Based Organization Foster/Kinship Parent, Group Home Staff Independent Living Skills Case Manager Social Worker Biological Family CASA Education System -Teacher -Guidance Counselor -School Social Worker Community College Independent Living Skills Director Cultural Connections Religious, ethnic and community leaders/members Juvenile Judge / Attorney Tribal Foster Youth
Clan Discussion As a Clan, identify: 3 specific objectives that will improve outcomes for Tribal foster youth Concrete action steps for each objective Community partners for each objective
Developing Action Plans Complete your Personal Action Plan Provide Tribal STAR with the yellow copy Keep the white copy for yourself
MODULE 11 Stepping Into The Circle Talking Circle (Por, G., 2005)