Presentation on theme: "The Gathering TRIBAL STAR’s mission is to ENSURE that"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Gathering TRIBAL STAR’s mission is to ENSURE that Tribal foster youthare connected toCULTURE,community and resourcesthroughout their transition to adulthoodthereby increasingPOSITIVE outcomesfor Tribal Foster YOUTH.Tribal STAR is a program of the Academy for Professional Excellence at San Diego State University School of Social Work
2 Understanding The Past Stepping onto the Path*Understanding The PastValuing The PresentCreating The Vision
3 Welcome & Introductions Why are you here today?~Introduction of ClansIntroduction to materials
4 of the Tribal STAR Project MODULE 1History and Purposeof the Tribal STAR Project
5 Funded by the California Department of Social Services, Tribal STAR is a result of a partnership between the SDSU School of Social Work, Academy for Professional Excellence and:Southern Indian Health CouncilSD HHSA Indian Specialty Unit & Independent Living UnitIndian Health CouncilIipay Nation of Santa YsabelYMCA YFSSouth Bay Community ServicesSan Diego Youth ServicesIntertribal Court of Southern California, Southern CA Tribal Chairmen’s AssociationSan Bernardino County Child & Family ServicesOrange County Social Services AgencyCasey Family Programs, San Diego Field OfficeSoboba Band of Luiseno IndiansPala Band of Mission Indians, Social Services Dept.Valley Oaks Foster Family AgencyCounty of San Diego, Office of Education, Foster Youth Services
6 Training & Technical Assistance Training Opportunities:The Gathering (training for frontline workers)The Summit (training for management/supervisory staff)The Collaborative (adapted ½ day training)Let the Spirit Lead: ICWA, In the Best Interest of the ChildThe Other Side of ICWAStatewide Training for Trainers SeriesStatewide Training for MSW StudentsTechnical Assistance includes:Independent Living / Trainer ForumsTribal STAR websiteDrumbeats newsletterCommunity based collaborative support
7 What do we know about the needs of Tribal Youth?Dropout rates range from 45-85%High teen pregnancy rates (45% before the age of 20)Unemployment rates of up to 80% on the reservations35% of Tribal youth experience out of home placement (more than any other racial group)
8 The Landscape of California CA has the largest Native American population in the nation(333,511 / 2000 Census, US Census Bureau /CA is the State with the largest number of foster youth
9 basis as other children.” Chafee Guidelines“States must make benefits and services available to Indian children in the state on the samebasis as other children.”“State must certify in its plan that: state will consult and coordinate with each Indian tribe in the state.”*all CA Tribal Chairs received a copy of the Proposed State Plan for Fiscal Years
10 How are Tribal Foster Youth Affected By The… CFSR (Child & Family Services Review)SIP (System Improvement Plan)ICWA (Indian Child Welfare Act)
11 What goals do you have to improve services for Tribal youth? What outcomes does your county intend to improve in the area of Tribal Youth & their families?What goals do you have to improve services for Tribal youth?
17 What Events Have Shaped Our Current Cross-Cultural Relations With Native Communities?
18 Indian History 1492-1800 European Conquest Pre-Reservation PeriodEarly Reservation EraIndian ReorganizationTermination EraSelf Determination1980-now The Present
19 The “Indian Problem vs. Euro-American Problem” For four centuries, non-Indians in North America have had an “Indian problem”. In its most basic form, this problem has had three aspects:
20 Economic: how best to secure access to Indian resources, land in particular Cultural Transformation: how best to accomplish the cultural transformation of Indians into non-IndiansPolitical: how to maintain effective controlsso that the problems 1 and 2 could be more satisfactorily resolved
21 Euro-American problem In essence, Tribal survival: the maintenance of particular sets of social relations, more or less distinct cultural orders, and some measure of political autonomy in the face of invasion, conquest and loss of power.The working out of these two conflicting agendas has given context and shape to Indian-White relations.
22 An ApologyRemarks of Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs Department of the Interior at theCeremony Acknowledging the 175th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs September 8, 2000
23 Another ApologyIn 2001, the Child Welfare League of America acknowledged wrongful involvement in the 1950’s/1960’s effort to facilitate the adoption of Indian children into White homes for the purpose of “saving” these children from their own culture and language.
24 What are some of the contributions of Native Americans tocontemporary society?
25 Contributions of Native Americans PresentationContributions of Native Americans
27 PurposeThe purpose of ICWA is to protect the best interests of the Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families by establishing minimum federal standards for the removal of Indian children from their parents or Indian custodians.
28 Intent of ICWAPrevent the unwarranted breakup of American Indian familiesRecognize tribal jurisdiction to make custody decisionsEstablish minimum federal standards that are to be followed when children are removed
29 Placement Preferences For Out of Home Placement FOSTER CARE1. Extended family2. Foster care licensedby Tribe3. Indian foster homelicensed by State4. Institution approvedby Tribe5. Other foster homes
30 Placement Preferences For Pre-Adoptive and Adoptive (Permanent) Placements 1. Extended family2. Tribal member3. Other Indian family
31 What is your role in ensuring ICWA compliance? Case WorkerFollow ICWA and local protocols for notification and placementIL Staff, Probation Officer, Case Manager, Counselor, Education staff etc.If there is any reason to believe youth is a member of a tribe, report to the CW case worker and collaborate with local ICWA staff.
33 American Indian Values & Culture MODULE 4American Indian Values & Culture
34 Who are you and where are you from? Group DiscussionWho are you and where are you from?
35 What are the differences in the value systems between American Indian and Western Mainstream Culture?How does this impact our thoughts and practice when providing services to Tribal youth and families?
36 (Tribally) Traditional: People who hold onto their native culture tightly, never being forced to assimilate into another culture. (Western) Acculturated: A person who changes his or her cultural identity, values, beliefs, practices and norms just to get experiences with a different culture.(Western) Assimilated: People who choose to give up most of their old ways, in order to adopt another dominant culture’s beliefs, values, and norms.(Horejsi et. al., 1987)
37 Traditional Indian Values vs. All American Values Mainstream Values Clan/communal emphasis Individual EmphasisSharing WinningPresent-time orientation Future OrientationSpiritualistic MaterialisticTime non-awareness Time awarenessHarmony with nature Conquest of naturePassive AggressiveGiving/spending Acquiring/savingAppreciates/honors silence Avoids silenceRespect of other religions Converting/proselytizing(Source: The Indian Child Welfare Act, Handbook by Rose-Margaret Orrantia; Cultural Awareness; the Indian Perspective, Marilyn Robinson).
38 Clan DiscussionWhat can you do to be more culturally sensitive when providing services toTribal youth?
39 Walking in Their Moccasins MODULE 5Walking in Their Moccasins
40 Presentation Listening to Those Who Have Been Affected by Foster Care What do youth and families feel when they are in the system?What do youth experience?What would help us provide more effective services in the future?
41 Events to Consider as Important for Tribal Foster Youth Naming ceremoniesSweat lodge and other purification ceremoniesSundance and other renewal ceremoniesEnd of life services, wakes, burialsEnd of cycle after death ceremonies
42 Resilience A New Word; An Old Meaning SpiritualityFamily StrengthEldersCeremonial RitualsOral TraditionsTribal IdentitySupport Networks
43 Stepping Into The Circle MODULE 6Stepping Into The Circle
44 The Talking Circle Process Every individual participates and some can choose not to speakWhen someone else is speaking it is our turn to listenThis is our time to speak our thoughts, our truthThe process is not complete until everyone has participated(Por, G., 2005)
46 Honoring the Seasons of Change MODULE 7Honoring the Seasons of Change
47 What do we know about adolescent development? What do we know about American Indian adolescent development?What is the purpose of American Indian puberty rites?How might unresolved grief and loss play a role in one’s development?
48 Typical Independent Living Development Cameron Hill Associates, 1997
49 Independent Living Development for Young Adults in Care Cameron Hill Associates, 1997
50 Western Contemporary vs. American Indian Society Traditional Systems CHILD Name givenbaptismLearns to use the toilet Goes on first date Learns to drive a car and obtains drivers license Gets first jobCHILDInitiation into clan, moiety, or subgroup by ceremony Learns to assist with family choresPuberty rites: learns gender-specific roles, family, community, and tribal expectations First hunt or first menses Naming ceremony – establishing identity in relation to family, clan, moiety, and tribal context
51 Western Contemporary vs. American Indian Society Traditional Systems ADULTTurns 18andLeaves for collegeADULTParticipates in Tribal community decision makingParticipates as adults in ceremonies
52 Western Contemporary vs. American Indian Society Traditional Systems SENIOR CITIZENTurns 65ELDERTurns 55Is venerated by communityandacknowledged as an elder
53 Comparison of Developmental Stages of Youth Clan Activity What issues affect stages of development for Native youth in foster care? Compare the developmental stages and fill in your answers in your Workbook (Module 7).Normal ~ Youth in ~ AmericanAdolescent Foster Care Indian Youthin Foster Care
54 Recommendations for Workers Build on young peoples’ connection to all living entitiesEncourage and openly discuss their spiritual developmentMake use of the outdoors.Recognize the vital role played by elders, aunts, uncles, and other extended family, blood-clan-moiety involvement and encourage their participation in these groups’ activities.
55 Encourage generosity of spirit. Incorporate more cooperative learning activities.Respect their individualism.Allow for a longer response time.Be more flexible with timelines.Respect that learning can also occur through listening and in silence.(Source: Munsell, G Tribal Approaches to Transition: The John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Program, NRCYS)
56 Identifying Services for Tribal Youth MODULE 8Identifying Services for Tribal Youth
57 Activity Drawing Our Youth What are the needs of adolescent youth? BLUEWhat are the needs of adolescent Tribal youth? REDWhat organizations/individuals/resources can address these needs? GREEN
58 Positive Outcomes from a Tribal Perspective Youth are contributing members of the communityYouth have a sense of belonging to the communityYouth are actively connected to Tribal and non-Tribal resources to achieve inter-dependencyYouth recognize the importance of community involvementYouth are continuously exposed to culture, customs, and traditionsAchieve cultural permanency through modification of parental rights (flexibility)Non-Tribal guardians of Tribal youth have access to Tribal cultural & community resources and allow youth to experience and explore their cultural identity
59 Ways Which Tribal Youth In Foster Care May Behave More traditional youth may not question the position they find themselves.Youth may be too intimidated by service providers or the bureaucracy they represent to request services.Those who apply for and are denied services may not complain or assert themselves.Youth may present to service providers, expecting those providers, like traditional healers, to know their needs, while they sit passively.
60 What can you do differently as a result of learning this information? What surprised you about the needs of adolescent American Indian youth?What can you do differently as aresult of learning this information?
61 Strengths & Barriers to Collaboration MODULE 9Strengths & Barriers to Collaboration
62 What are examples of successful local collaboration? What makes them successful?What’s the difference between collaboration, coordination, and cooperation?
63 Collaboration Coordination Cooperation Commitment to common mission Understanding of compatible missionIndividual interpretations of missionMutual goals and plansSome planning and division of rolesInformal structureWell-defined communication channels operating on many different levelsCommunication channels establishedInformation shared as neededResources contributed and pooled or jointly securedResources availableLimited or no resources(Jones, et al., 1999).
64 Clan Discussion Review: “Positive Outcomes for Tribal Youth” Discuss: How could collaborations support successful outcomes for your agencies, your county, your youth?
68 Culturally Responsive Communities, Tribes and Native Organizations Increase Cross-Cultural Understanding Through the Following:Establish a welcoming environmentAssist local organization/tribes/communities that enhance cross-cultural understandingSponsor regular meetings with the community/leadersAssist organizational personnel with the involvement of EldersProvide an annual open house /workshopDevelop mechanisms to coordinate services of all local programsProvide encouragement and support for community members who show an interest & involve them as resources
69 Who to Contact First? ICWA representative or Tribal contact A personal visit, or phone call is better than a letter or an .-Is anyone in the community working with Tribal foster youth?-Who do people go to for advice when working with Tribal foster youth?-Who should I contact at Tribal council / what is the best way to approach them?
70 Tips for Following Protocol Demonstrate respect for Elders & leadersSchedule meetings and events around mealsPublicly acknowledge Tribal participation in meetings & make introductionsModel a spirit of cross-cultural collaboration by including and recognizing all efforts
71 Values and Protocol That Enhance Collaboration Personal connection will go farther than a written letterAccepting food and drink and scheduling meetings during mealtimes cultivates trustBe natural – but not intrusive, remember that communication within communities is also non-verbal
72 Tribal STAR Best Practice Model Circle of Care Independent Living Skills Case ManagerFoster/Kinship Parent, Group Home StaffSocial WorkerJuvenile Judge / AttorneyCommunity BasedOrganizationTribal Foster YouthBiological FamilyProbation OfficerCASAICWAWorkerEducation System-Teacher-Guidance Counselor-School Social WorkerCultural ConnectionsReligious, ethnic and community leaders/membersCommunity College Independent Living Skills Director
73 Clan Discussion As a Clan, identify: 3 specific objectives that will improve outcomes for Tribal foster youthConcrete action steps for each objectiveCommunity partners for each objective
74 Developing Action Plans Complete your Personal Action PlanProvide Tribal STAR with the yellow copyKeep the white copy for yourself
75 Stepping Into The Circle MODULE 11Stepping Into The CircleTalking Circle(Por, G., 2005)