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Chapter 13: Congress Unit 4.

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1 Chapter 13: Congress Unit 4

2 Congress Versus Parliament
Copyright © 2013 Cengage Congress Independent representatives of districts or states (decentralized) Work = representation, individual voting, establishing laws Parliament Loyal to national party leadership Work = debate & party voting to keep Prime Minister and cabinet members in power

3 POWERS OF CONGRESS Article 1, section 8 from pocket constitutions!
Taxes Borrow money Regulate commerce (trade) – foreign & interstate Naturalization & bankruptcy laws Coin/Print money & establish counterfeit laws/punishments Establish post offices Issue patents & copyrights Create lower federal courts Establish laws, control & punishments concerning the seas Declare war Raise & support army/navy Provide for militia through states (National Guard) Necessary and Proper Clause**

4 Bicameral Structure 2 Chambers: House of Reps & Senate 113th Congress: January 2013 – January 2015 ** based off of 2012 midterm elections Party Polarization: Majority of the 2 major political parties opposing the other Post 1970s = GREAT increase in party polarization in congress and decrease in bipartisan compromise

5 Polarization in Congress
CLICK ON THE LINK Congress: In the Real World 2. Select “In the Real World” from the right tab 3. Click on the “VIDEO” tab and watch video

6 Copyright © 2013 Cengage Note: A party vote occurs when the specified percentage (or more) of one party votes against the specified percentage (or more) of the other party. Sources: Updated through 2008 by Zach Courser; NES data as reported in 2001–2002; Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (CQ Press, 2001), 211. Reprinted by permission of Congressional Quarterly, Inc.

7 Why Polarization in Congress post 1970s?
Prior to 1970s: “Seniority based” leadership - much experiences and practiced the “art” of the political deal (bipartisan compromise) Established Interparty coalitions to obtain chairmanships Post 1970s: “Disappearing center” - conservative democrats and liberal republicans = EXTINCT! NOT “senior based” leadership - congressmen = more bold and set in political ideologies than older more experienced congressmen

8 Party Unity Lower today than 100 years ago, but…..
Ideology important variable explaining party voting (members vote with their party 80% of the time) Polarization trends: HR = 36%; S = 37% HR = 73%; S = 69% HR = 43%; S = 49% WATCH FIRST 3 MIN – Stewart on Congress

9 Congressional Caucuses
groups (may be bipartisan) meeting to pursue common legislative objectives Rivals to parties in policy formulation Examples: Democratic Study Group, Congressional Black Caucus, Tuesday Lunch Bunch, Human Rights, Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues, Out of Iraq Caucus, Rural Caucus, Travel & Tourism Caucus, House Caucus on Missing and Exploited Children

10 Who’s in Congress?

11 Who’s in Congress?


13 House of Reps 435 members (population of state) 2 year terms
MUST be 25 yrs. Old MUST be U.S. citizen for 7 years MUST be resident of state representing * Power to impeach (formally accuse) * Handle bills dealing with money (taxes/spending) 233 Republicans 3 Vacancies 201 Democrats

14 Senate 100 members (2 per state) 6 year terms MUST be 30 yrs. Old
MUST be U.S. citizen for 9 years MUST be resident of state representing * Handles foreign/ratification treaties * Approves presidential appointments * Hold impeachment trials and remove officials from office 53 Democrats 2 Indep. (Caucusing with Dems) 45 Republicans

15 House v. Senate Senate House 435 members; 2 yr terms
Low turnover Speaker bill referral hard to challenge Scheduling/rules controlled by majority party with powerful Rules Committee (controls time of debate, amends., etc) Senate ■ 100 members; 6 yr terms ■ Moderate turnover ■ Referral decisions easily challenged ■ Scheduling/rules agreed to by majority & minority leaders

16 House v. Senate: IN COMMITTEE
■ Debate limited to 1 hour ■ Members policy specialists ■ Emphasizes tax & revenue policy ■ More formal & impersonal Senate ■ Unlimited debate unless cloture invoked ■ Members policy generalists ■ Emphasizes foreign policy ■ More informal & personal

17 Congress: The Basics Explained
CLICK ON THE LINK Congress: The Basics 2. Select “The Basics” from the right tab 3. Click on the “VIDEO” tab and watch video

18 Congressional Elections
Incumbency!! REELECTION RATES = 90% average

19 Congressional Elections
Marginal Districts: close/competitive elections (less than 55% of vote) Safe Districts: incumbent landslide election (more than 55% of vote) ** DIFFERENCE MAKER = $ and name recognition!! ** Elections where there is no running incumbent = MORE COMPETITION and more spending

20 House Leadership mentioned in Article 1, section 2 of the Constitution
Speaker of the House: - Majority party (R) elected * GOAL = pass legislation favored by majority party POWER Phase #6 – “powerful speaker” Selects chair memberships of committees Selects 9 of the 13 members on the House Rules Committee Appoints ALL members of select committees and conference committees Determines which bills go to which committee for action Determines which bills reach the floor and runs vote

21 House Leadership: REPUBLICANS
Speaker of the House : John Boehner Majority Leader: Eric Cantor * elected by majority party * assists Speaker, helps schedule business Majority Whip: Kevin McCarthy * “spokesperson”/reporter to majority leader on stance of committee members and voting trends to predict and schedule floor voting * get the “inside scoop” on views/attitudes of controversial issues * mobilizes members Chairman of Conference Policy Committee Committee on Committees National Republican Congressional Committee Research Committee

22 House Leadership: DEMOCRATS
Minority Leader: Nancy Pelosi * elected by minority party * coordinates with/opposes the majority leader Minority Whip: Steny Hoyer * “spokesperson”/reporter to minority leader on stance of committee members and voting trends to predict and schedule floor voting * get the “inside scoop” on views/attitudes of controversial issues * mobilizes members Chairman of the Caucus Steering & Policy Committee Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee

23 House Committees Standing Committee:
* 19 standing committees, 100+ subcommittees, 3 permanent select committees Standing Committee: permanent committees with specific responsibilities Subcommittees : formed to tackle very specific tasks within the jurisdiction of the full committees ** REFERENCE YOUR HOUSE COMMITTEE CHART from student group presentations! Rules Committee Appropriations Committee Ways and Means

24 Appropriations Committee
March 2, 1865, the House separated the appropriating, banking and currency duties from the Committee on Ways and Means (established in 1789). It assigned them to two new committees: Committee on Appropriations Committee on Banking and Currency ** Handles the “appropriations” of money that bills and pieces of legislation receive. Until 1865, all "general" appropriations bills had been controlled in the House by the Committee on Ways and Means (also in charge of revenue measures) Membership of the Committee: 51 total members  29 R, 22 D 12 Subcommittees: Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Defense Energy and Water Development, and Related Agencies Financial Services and General Government Homeland Security Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Legislative Branch Military Construction, Veteran Affairs, and Related Agencies State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies

25 Ways and Means Committee
U.S. CONSTITUTION Article I, Section 7, of the Constitution of the United States provides as follows: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution of the United States provides the following: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and...To borrow Money on the credit of the United States.

26 Congressional Committees
Joint Committee: committees composed of BOTH House and Senate members Joint Economic Committee Joint Committee on Printing Joint Committee on Taxation Conference Committee: committee made up of Speaker appointed House and Senate members to draft an identical version of a bill/legislation Select Committee: committees appointed for certain purposes and for a limited time, INVESTIGATIVE by nature, go beyond the jurisdiction of standing committees House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Senate Select Committee on Ethics House & Senate Select Committees on Intelligence

27 Copyright © 2013 Cengage

28 Copyright © 2013 Cengage

29 Rep. Steve Scalise, R-La., holds a photo of an oil covered
Copyright © 2013 Cengage AP Photo/Haraz N. Ghanbari Rep. Steve Scalise, R-La., holds a photo of an oil covered pelican as he questions BP CEO Tony Hayward on Capitol Hill in Washington, June 17, 2010, during the House Oversight and Investigations subcommittee hearing on the role of BP in the Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill.

30 Senate Leadership: Party Organized
DEMOCRATS President of the Senate (Vice President- Joe Biden) President Pro Tempore (majority party – Patrick Leahy) Majority Leader (Harry Reid D-NV) Majority Whip (Richard Durbin D-IL) Chairman of Conference Policy Committee (12+ senators of each party = choose bills to focus on) Steering Committee (assigns senators to committees – 22 members) Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee

31 Senate Leadership: Party Organized
REPUBLICANS Minority Leader (Mitch McConnell R-KY) Minority Whip (John Cornyn R- TX) Chairman of Conference Policy Committee (12+ senators of each party = choose bills to focus on) Committee on Committees (assigns senators to committees – 18 members) Republican Senatorial Committee SENATE LEADERSHIP

32 Committee Changes/Reform: Party Dictated
DEMOCRATS (1970s) Majority party selects committee chairs by secret ballot Chairs cannot block legislation by refusing to send bill to subcommittee ALL committees and subcommittees must be public (unless by vote to keep them closed) ObamaCare Committee Hearing Subcommittee chairs = elected by committee members Subcommittee chairs can hire own staffers (without committee chair influence)

33 Committee Change/Reform: Party Dictated
REPUBLICANS (1990s) Decreased # of committees and subcommittees Committee chairs hire subcommittee chairs Term limits: CHAIRS (committees & subcommittees) = 3 terms/6 years total SPEAKER = 4 terms/8 years total - Chairs cannot cast vote for absent committee member

34 Congressional Behavior
3 Theories Representational: congressmen want reelection and vote to please and represent their constituents * Focus on big issues that matter to constituents (civil rights, gun control) Organizational: congressmen want to please fellow members of congress, NOT constituents * Party voting… all congressmen are NOT informed on all issues Attitudinal: congressmen vote how they please because conflicting pressure on issues cancel out

35 Organization of Congress
STAFFERS ** increased rapidly in the 20th century! Committee & Individual Staffers= work FOR legislators - routine chores - “handle” constituents - serve as communication link between constituents and legislators (inform legislators of district concerns, work to get legislator reelected)

36 Organization of Congress
STAFF AGENCIES * Work for congress as a whole  give congress specialized info. on issues/topics CRS (Congressional Research Service) - NEUTRAL information service (D & R) GAO (General Accountability Office) - serve congress… head appt. by president - policy and government investigation CBO (Congressional Budget Office) - advises on impact of program spending - tracks economic trends

37 resolution - a measure expressing opinions on policies or issues
Types of Resolutions resolution - a measure expressing opinions on policies or issues simple resolution – “house-keeping” or procedural measure needed only in one chamber (HR or S) Ex. Rules Committee in House concurrent resolution – legislative motion that must be approved by both chambers (HR & S), but does not have the force of law Ex. Amendment process joint resolution – measure approved by both chambers (HR & S) AND the president carries the force of law

38 Legislative Process: Bill  Law
1. Introduction of Bill: proposed piece of legislation that has not yet been passed  markups School House Rock Senate: Bill formerly read aloud on floor Bill then given to clerk Referred to committee by Steering Committee House: Bill dropped in hopper Referred to committee by the Speaker

39 Legislative Process: Bill  Law
Bill Assigned to Committee and/or Subcommittee - by speaker (HR) or Steering Committee (S) - committee with proper jurisdiction ** most bills DIE in committee! Hearing - complicate the bill and the process - witnesses testify, questioning, evidence presented (interest groups, congressmen, public support) Rules Committee - committee and subcommittee make changes that must be approved by the house ** Important for committee to introduce favorably Discharge petition: HR majority (218) vote to bring bill to floor for vote (RARE) Open rule: amendments can be made on the floor Closed rule: limits/restricts debates and amendments that can be made to bill

40 Legislative Process: Bill  Law
Floor Action: HOUSE of REPS Rules Committee schedules bills on calendar & decides whether amendments may be added Earmarks: hidden pieces of a bill that exempt or order the federal govt. to fund = causes conflict! HR = limited debate (1 hour) Floor vote: Recorded/Roll Call, Standing, Voice

41 Legislative Process: Bill  Law
4. Floor Action: SENATE Party leaders schedule bills for floor debate on the calendar Riders: irrelevant amend. changes made to bill = conflict! Filibuster: senator speaking for extended amount of time to delay or prevent measure from coming to vote Senator Strum Thurman still holds the record for the longest filibuster - 24 hrs 18 min. on the 1957 Civil Rights Act Ted Cruz Filibuster Ted Cruz Filibuster Speech Double Tracking: majority vote to set filibustered bill aside temporarily for senate to move on with business Cloture: 3/5 vote in Senate (60 members) to end filibuster

42 Legislative Process: Bill  Law
5. Chamber Voting House of Reps  Senate Approved bill must pass each chamber by a simple majority Conference Committee if both chambers do not agree on identical version Voting on final version of the bill Presidential Action (veto or signing into law) * pocket veto, item line veto Note: Congress can override veto with 2/3 vote in each house; only 4% of vetos have been overridden

43 Copyright © 2013 Cengage Photo courtesy of the Office of the Clerk of the House The electronic voting system in the House of Representatives displays each member’s name on the wall of the chamber. By inserting a plastic card in a box fastened to the chairs, a member can vote “Yea,” “Nay,” or “Present,” and the result is shown opposite his or her name.

44 How a Bill Becomes a Law Replace with jpeg, p. 343
Copyright © 2013 Cengage How a Bill Becomes a Law Replace with jpeg, p. 343

45 Legislative Productivity
Divided Government: When the executive branch party is opposite of one or both chambers of legislative branch Unified Government: Executive branch and both chambers of legislative branch are of the same party

46 Legislative Process: Bill  Law
Fact: About 5,000 bills are introduced in Congress every year, but only about 150 are signed into law. PROJECT VOTE SMART! Mock Congressional Legislation Select legislation ideas for hopper Vote on House Speaker ** READ/Access handout in order to carry this process through! Who shall the speaker beeee???!

47 Copyright © 2013 Cengage

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