Presentation on theme: "What Are Ethics and Morality?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What Are Ethics and Morality? Morality- Involves the values that govern a group’s ideas about right and wrongEthics- refers to the rules used to determine the difference between right and wrong
2 Ethical Rules Greatest Good The action will cause the greatest good for the greatest number of people.The more good that results, the more right the actionIt is used incorrectly when people think only of their own good, or if a person sees only the good created for a small group.Golden Rule“Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”Heart of the rule is EMPATHY- putting yourself in another person’s position.Real-World EthicsThere are moral rules that most people know instinctively, without thinking. Ex. Lying is wrongSometimes you have to do something wrong, ex. Lie, to lead to the best result (ex. Save a life).
3 Ethical Character Traits HonestyCharacter trait of someone who is truthful in dealings with othersJusticeTreating people fairly and equallyEveryone gets his or her fair shareCompassionCaring about other people and the situation they are in.Understand other people’s mistakes and motivationsIntegrityA willingness and determination to do the right thingStand up for their convictions even when many people are against them.
4 Why is Law Necessary?Government created laws because people don’t always do what they are supposed toLaw- system of rules of conduct established by a country’s government to maintain stability and justice according to the values that are relevant to the country.Defines the legal rights and responsibilities of the peopleCan require certain actions, or forbid others.Ethics and law affect each otherUsed to be ethically acceptable to have slaves, so there were laws that enforced itNo longer acceptable, laws had to be changed.
5 Business Ethics Activity GO to page 9 and complete the “Business Ethics” activity.
6 Five Main Sources of Law Constitutional LawConstitution- a country’s formal document that spells out the principles by which its government operates.United States Constitution describes the three branches of the U.S. governmentSets up the limits within which the federal and state governments may pass laws.Sets down the rights of the people.
7 Five Main Sources of Law Article ISets up the Legislative Branch of the government, Congress, which is responsible for passing laws for the country and lays out duties and requirements for serving in the federal government.Article IICreates Executive Branch, which includes the President and all the different departments within the governmentResponsible for ensuring that the laws passed by Congress are upheld and followedArticle IIIDescribes the Judiciary BranchResponsible for interpreting the laws passed by Congress and adjudicating (judge) criminal cases in federal matters and disputes between parties.
8 Five Main Sources of Law First three Articles cause a “checks and balances” system.No one part of government is more powerful than the other.Other important ArticlesArticle IV (4)- Each state must accept the laws of other states.Article V (5)- How laws are added to the Constitution (amendments)Article VI (6)- Contains Supremacy Clause- U.S. Constitution and laws of the U.S. are highest laws in the country.Article VII (7)- Explains how to approve the Constitution.Constitution has 27 amendments.First 10 are called the Bill of Rights13TH Amendment- abolished slavery, 19th Amendment- gave women right to vote, 26th Amendment- lowered voting age to 18 years old.
9 Five Main Sources of Law Common LawSet of laws made by the courts which provide a series of consistent rules that later courts must follow.Judges use past cases to help them make decisions. Past cases are known as Precedent.Precedent- A past case that a court follows when making a present decision.Stare decisis (“Let the decision stand”)- relying on past court casesNot used today that much.Statutes and the Civil Law SystemCivil law is based on statutes, rather than court decisions.Statute- a law passed by a government body that has been made for the purpose of creating laws.Can order people to do something (ex. Wear seatbelts)Can say people can’t do something, also known as a criminal statute (ex. Murder is a crime)
10 Five Main Sources of Law Federal StatuteLaws that are passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by the PresidentState StatutesState legislators cannot pass statutes that conflict with the U.S. Constitution or their own constitutions. (refer to example on page 13)OrdinancesMost local governments have the power to create laws that affect their citizens, laws known as ordinances.Include things like parking fines and noise levels after a certain time of day.
11 Five Main Sources of Law Court DecisionsCourts make laws, known as case law, court decisions, or judge-made lawCourts make laws in three ways:Common law traditionInterpreting statutesJudicial ReviewCreating laws-decisions made by the highest courts in the state must be followed by other courts in that state.Interpreting laws- when a statute is confusing, the court must figure out what it means.Judge may not interpret a statute unless it is part of a case.Judicial review- courts decide if any law conflicts with the Constitution. Supreme Court has final say.
12 Chapter 1.2 The Court System and Trial Procedures
13 A DUAL COURT SYSTEM Federal State Hear cases involving federal subjectsHear cases involving citizens from different states or from another countryStatePowers not specifically granted to the federal government are reserved for the states.Have their own courts with their own rules
14 FEDERAL COURT SYSTEMJurisdiction- a court’s power to hear a case and to make a judgmentActions in which the United States or one state is a party, except those actions between a state and its citizensCases that raise a federal questions, such as interpreting the ConstitutionCases, which involve citizens of different states and in which the amount of money in dispute exceeds $75,000Admiralty cases, or those pertaining to the seaPatent and copyright casesBankruptcy cases
15 Federal courts are arranged in three tiers. First tier is the U.S. District CourtEach state has at least one, many have more than oneSecond tier consists of the U.S. Courts of AppealsThird tier is the U.S. Supreme Court
16 Go to a computer and find the answer to these 2 questions: Who was the first African American appointed to the Supreme Court?Who was the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court, and when was she appointed?
17 District Courts Courts of Appeals Have original jurisdiction A court has the power to hear a case for the first time.Most federal cases begin in one of the U.S. District CourtsCourts of AppealsAppellate courts of the federal systemCourt that hears appeals and reviews cases from lower courts (can reverse court decisions)Intermediate Courts- one that is between the lower courts and the highest court of a system.Appellate jurisdiction- power to hear an appeal from a lower courtPanel of 3 judges, no witnesses, no evidence and no juryOnly questions of law can be raised, not fact (determine if law was properlyapplied.
18 Special U.S. Courts Supreme Court Special Federal Courts Have jurisdiction in certain kinds of casesInclude lawsuits that are brought by citizens against the federal governmentSupreme CourtHighest court in the country.Consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justicesPresident chooses the justices, with Senate’s consentJustices serve for lifeHear appeals, they choose which ones to hear (vote from 4 of 9)Two types of jurisdiction- appellate and original.Original jurisdiction in cases that involve ambassadors, consuls and other public ministers. Also in cases that involve a state.
19 Examine the makeup of the Supreme Court Examine the makeup of the Supreme Court. Express your opinion about the age, race, or gender of the justices.
20 STATE COURT SYSTEMS Local Trial Courts General Trial Courts Limited jurisdiction (handles minor matters)Ex. Disputes over small amounts of money (small-claims court)Can be heard by traffic, police, or mayor’s courts.General Trial CourtsGeneral jurisdictionHandles criminal and civil cases
21 Juvenile CourtsDeal with juvenile offenders and children who need protection from the state.Up to age 18Special jurisdiction (delinquent, unruly, abused and neglected children)Cases are sealed to protect privacyNo right to trial by jury or to be released on bailMust be proof beyond a reasonable doubt to convict a child as an adult
22 Intermediate Appellate Courts Hear AppealsWhen parties feel they did not have a fair trialJudge did not interpret the law correctlyOnly hear appeals on questions of lawNo witnessesJudge listens to attorneys and study documents and recordsState Supreme CourtsHighest court in most statesHears appeals from lower courts, but does not hold a second trialDo NOT look at facts, just makes sure lower courts did not make a mistake with interpretationSome cases may be appeals to U.S. Supreme Court