Presentation on theme: " Morality- Involves the values that govern a group’s ideas about right and wrong Ethics- refers to the rules used to determine the difference between."— Presentation transcript:
Morality- Involves the values that govern a group’s ideas about right and wrong Ethics- refers to the rules used to determine the difference between right and wrong
1) Greatest Good ◦ The action will cause the greatest good for the greatest number of people. ◦ The more good that results, the more right the action ◦ It is used incorrectly when people think only of their own good, or if a person sees only the good created for a small group. 2) Golden Rule ◦ “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” ◦ Heart of the rule is EMPATHY- putting yourself in another person’s position. 3) Real-World Ethics ◦ There are moral rules that most people know instinctively, without thinking. Ex. Lying is wrong ◦ Sometimes you have to do something wrong, ex. Lie, to lead to the best result (ex. Save a life).
Honesty ◦ Character trait of someone who is truthful in dealings with others Justice ◦ Treating people fairly and equally ◦ Everyone gets his or her fair share Compassion ◦ Caring about other people and the situation they are in. ◦ Understand other people’s mistakes and motivations Integrity ◦ A willingness and determination to do the right thing ◦ Stand up for their convictions even when many people are against them.
◦ Government created laws because people don’t always do what they are supposed to ◦ Law- system of rules of conduct established by a country’s government to maintain stability and justice according to the values that are relevant to the country. Defines the legal rights and responsibilities of the people Can require certain actions, or forbid others. ◦ Ethics and law affect each other Used to be ethically acceptable to have slaves, so there were laws that enforced it No longer acceptable, laws had to be changed.
GO to page 9 and complete the “Business Ethics” activity.
1)Constitutional Law Constitution- a country’s formal document that spells out the principles by which its government operates. United States Constitution describes the three branches of the U.S. government Sets up the limits within which the federal and state governments may pass laws. Sets down the rights of the people.
◦ Article I Sets up the Legislative Branch of the government, Congress, which is responsible for passing laws for the country and lays out duties and requirements for serving in the federal government. ◦ Article II Creates Executive Branch, which includes the President and all the different departments within the government Responsible for ensuring that the laws passed by Congress are upheld and followed ◦ Article III Describes the Judiciary Branch Responsible for interpreting the laws passed by Congress and adjudicating (judge) criminal cases in federal matters and disputes between parties.
◦ First three Articles cause a “checks and balances” system. No one part of government is more powerful than the other. ◦ Other important Articles Article IV (4)- Each state must accept the laws of other states. Article V (5)- How laws are added to the Constitution (amendments) Article VI (6)- Contains Supremacy Clause- U.S. Constitution and laws of the U.S. are highest laws in the country. Article VII (7)- Explains how to approve the Constitution. ◦ Constitution has 27 amendments. First 10 are called the Bill of Rights 13 TH Amendment- abolished slavery, 19 th Amendment- gave women right to vote, 26 th Amendment- lowered voting age to 18 years old.
Common Law Set of laws made by the courts which provide a series of consistent rules that later courts must follow. Judges use past cases to help them make decisions. Past cases are known as Precedent. Precedent- A past case that a court follows when making a present decision. Stare decisis (“Let the decision stand”)- relying on past court cases Not used today that much. Statutes and the Civil Law System Civil law is based on statutes, rather than court decisions. Statute- a law passed by a government body that has been made for the purpose of creating laws. Can order people to do something (ex. Wear seatbelts) Can say people can’t do something, also known as a criminal statute (ex. Murder is a crime)
Federal Statute Laws that are passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by the President State Statutes State legislators cannot pass statutes that conflict with the U.S. Constitution or their own constitutions. (refer to example on page 13) Ordinances Most local governments have the power to create laws that affect their citizens, laws known as ordinances. Include things like parking fines and noise levels after a certain time of day.
Court Decisions ◦ Courts make laws, known as case law, court decisions, or judge-made law ◦ Courts make laws in three ways: Common law tradition Interpreting statutes Judicial Review ◦ Creating laws-decisions made by the highest courts in the state must be followed by other courts in that state. ◦ Interpreting laws- when a statute is confusing, the court must figure out what it means. Judge may not interpret a statute unless it is part of a case. ◦ Judicial review- courts decide if any law conflicts with the Constitution. Supreme Court has final say.
Chapter 1.2 The Court System and Trial Procedures
Federal ◦ Hear cases involving federal subjects ◦ Hear cases involving citizens from different states or from another country State ◦ Powers not specifically granted to the federal government are reserved for the states. ◦ Have their own courts with their own rules
Jurisdiction- a court’s power to hear a case and to make a judgment 1.Actions in which the United States or one state is a party, except those actions between a state and its citizens 2.Cases that raise a federal questions, such as interpreting the Constitution 3.Cases, which involve citizens of different states and in which the amount of money in dispute exceeds $75,000 4.Admiralty cases, or those pertaining to the sea 5.Patent and copyright cases 6.Bankruptcy cases
Federal courts are arranged in three tiers. ◦ First tier is the U.S. District Court Each state has at least one, many have more than one ◦ Second tier consists of the U.S. Courts of Appeals ◦ Third tier is the U.S. Supreme Court
Go to a computer and find the answer to these 2 questions: ◦ Who was the first African American appointed to the Supreme Court? ◦ Who was the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court, and when was she appointed?
District Courts ◦ Have original jurisdiction A court has the power to hear a case for the first time. ◦ Most federal cases begin in one of the U.S. District Courts Courts of Appeals ◦ Appellate courts of the federal system Court that hears appeals and reviews cases from lower courts (can reverse court decisions) Intermediate Courts- one that is between the lower courts and the highest court of a system. Appellate jurisdiction- power to hear an appeal from a lower court Panel of 3 judges, no witnesses, no evidence and no jury Only questions of law can be raised, not fact (determine if law was properly applied.
Special U.S. Courts ◦ Special Federal Courts ◦ Have jurisdiction in certain kinds of cases ◦ Include lawsuits that are brought by citizens against the federal government Supreme Court ◦ Highest court in the country. ◦ Consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices ◦ President chooses the justices, with Senate’s consent ◦ Justices serve for life ◦ Hear appeals, they choose which ones to hear (vote from 4 of 9) ◦ Two types of jurisdiction- appellate and original. ◦ Original jurisdiction in cases that involve ambassadors, consuls and other public ministers. Also in cases that involve a state.
Examine the makeup of the Supreme Court. Express your opinion about the age, race, or gender of the justices.
Local Trial Courts ◦ Limited jurisdiction (handles minor matters) ◦ Ex. Disputes over small amounts of money (small-claims court) ◦ Can be heard by traffic, police, or mayor’s courts. General Trial Courts ◦ General jurisdiction ◦ Handles criminal and civil cases
Juvenile Courts ◦ Deal with juvenile offenders and children who need protection from the state. ◦ Up to age 18 ◦ Special jurisdiction (delinquent, unruly, abused and neglected children) ◦ Cases are sealed to protect privacy ◦ No right to trial by jury or to be released on bail ◦ Must be proof beyond a reasonable doubt to convict a child as an adult
Intermediate Appellate Courts ◦ Hear Appeals When parties feel they did not have a fair trial Judge did not interpret the law correctly ◦ Only hear appeals on questions of law No witnesses Judge listens to attorneys and study documents and records State Supreme Courts ◦ Highest court in most states ◦ Hears appeals from lower courts, but does not hold a second trial ◦ Do NOT look at facts, just makes sure lower courts did not make a mistake with interpretation ◦ Some cases may be appeals to U.S. Supreme Court