3Key Concept 4.2.IIRegional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economySource: College Board, AP United States History Course and Exam Description (Including the Curriculum Framework)
4Key Concept 4.2.IIASouthern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade.Source: College Board, AP United States History Course and Exam Description (Including the Curriculum Framework)
5The Cotton EconomyBefore 1793, Slavery was on the decline until invention of the cotton gin= short staple cotton becomes profitableCotton Gin increased efficiency 50x over!1780’s- northern states were gradually abolishing slavery.Importing slaves was made illegal in 1808Thus a huge domestic slave market emergedmillion slaves in the US (quadrupled since 1800)= worth $2 Billion = 90% illiteratePrime field hand= $1200- $1800 (1860 dollars)(Today this may have been around $30,000-50,000)Northern bankers loaned $300 million for slavesTextile manufacturers in US depended 100% on Southern cotton75% of whites in the south owned 0 slaves“Lords of the Loom tied to the Lords of the Lash”
10Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
11“Cotton is King”As cotton became more profitable- planters drifted down to the Gulf states= planters bought more slaves & land to buy more slaves & land.Northern shippers made much profit from the cotton tradeCotton accounted for 57% the value of all US exports after 1840Britain’s textile mills depended on southern cotton (75% of their cotton came from the South).If Civil War between North & South occurred- Southerners believed that Britain would break any Northern blockade & force recognition of the South= “FALSE SENSE OF SUPERIORITY”.
13The Planter Aristocracy a planter aristocracy dominated Southern government & society (oligarchy),733 Southern families owned 100 or more slaves= “cottonocracy”educated their children in private schools –many located in the northhad leisure time for study & statecraft= John C. Calhoun (Yale), Jefferson Davis (West Point grad)= South produces higher proportion of high rank statesmen before 1860
14The “Cottonocracy”The South, dominated by cotton rich planter class= undemocratic, widened the gap between rich & poorfavorite writer of this class- Sir Walter Scott (Ivanhoe)= southern chivalry= idealized feudal systemsSouthern mistress– commanded large staff (mostly slave women)almost none advocated for abolition
17Effects of the Slave System on the South Plantation agriculture was wasteful= led to populations moving West & NorthwestIncreasingly monopolistic- as “land butchery” increased, small famers sold their land to prosperous plantation neighbors = “the big got bigger & the small got smaller”Plantation system was financially unstable- over speculation in land & slaves was common = planters went into more debtDependence on a one crop economy- discouraged agricultural diversification (price was dependent on world conditions)By the 1850’s Southerners increasingly resented the North- the North was prospering at their expensePlantation Economy repelled immigration- by only 4.4% of the Southern population was foreign-born= white south is most Anglo-Saxon section of the nation.
18The White Majority Non-slave holding whites In ,000 Southern white families (1,725,000)Over 2/3 of these families (255,268) owned fewer than 10 slavesIn all- only ¼ of white southerners owned slaves= made up a majority of slave ownerstypically small famers who worked hard in the fieldshouseholds owned a slave or two-most likely a slave familylived in modest farm housesNon-slave holding whitesBy ,120,825 southern whites (3/4) of all whites owned no slavesmade a living cultivating poor soil of backcountry or mountain valleysResented the rich planter class (“snobocracy”)raised corn, hogs, -- not cottonlived isolated livesleast prosperous non-slave holding whites = “poor white trash”
21The Mountain Whites called “hillbillies or crackers” probably suffered from malnutrition, parasites, hookwormAmong the strongest defenders of slavery WHY??Prospect of upward social mobilityBelief in their racial superiorityThe Mountain WhitesIsolated in the valleys of Appalachia Range from western Virginia to northern Georgia & Alabamalived under meager frontier conditionsRetained Elizabethan speechhated planters & slavesproved loyal to the Union during the war & the Republican Party after the warPoor whites took comfort that they were "equal" to wealthy neighborsBULLY ALERT!!!!!Social status was determined by how many slaves one owned: poor Southern whites someday hoped to own slaves.Slavery proved effective in controlling blacks; ending slavery might result in race mixing and blacks competing with whites for work.
22Life of Free Blacks Free Blacks “the Third Race” 1860- numbered about 250,000 in the SouthUpper South- free blacks were part of manumission after Revolutionary WarDeep South- many free blacks were malattoes- emancipated children of white planter & his black mistressSome free blacks in the South earned freedom with their earningsLife of Free Blacksmany owned property- William T. Johnson (New Orleans) even owned black slavesprohibited from working certain occupationsprevented from testifying against whites in courtcould be kidnapped back into slaveryFree Blacks In the North225,000-northern states forbade them entrance; forbade them the right to vote, forbade them the right to attend public schoolsFree Blacks “the Third Race”1860- numbered about 250,000 in the SouthUpper South and Border States, free blacks were part of manumission after Revolutionary War (manumission=gradual emancipation)Lower/Deep South- many free blacks were malattoes- emancipated children of white planter & his black mistressSome free blacks in the South earned freedom with their earnings from labor after work hoursLife of Free Blacksmany owned property- William T. Johnson (New Orleans) even owned black slaves (Note: This was extremely rare)Petersburg Va, had the largest free black population in the SouthFree Blacks experienced Discrimination in the South1. Blacks were prohibited from certain occupations and from testifying against whites in court.2. They were always in danger of being forced back into slavery by unscrupulous slave traders. (Sometimes Kidnapped)Free Blacks In the North 225,000-Large communities existed in certain northern cities, especially Philadelphia.Even the northern states forbade them entrance into power; forbade them the right to vote, forbade them the right to attend public schools (Public Schools were segregated)
23anti-black feelings in the north stronger than in the south Free blacks in the North –hated by the Irishanti-black feelings in the north stronger than in the south“ it was often observed …white southerners, who were often suckled and reared by black nurses, liked the black as an individual but despised the race. The white northerner, on the other hand, often professed to like the race but dislike the individual blacks”Much of Northern sentiment against spread of slavery into new territories due to intense racial prejudice, not humanitarianism.•Racist feelings were often stronger in the North than in the South.Many times this was also fueled by fear of economic competition and jobs. Many were worried that if slaves were free, they would migrate north and take their jobs.
24Plantation Slavery4 million black slaves dwelt at the bottom of Southern social society.1808- legal importation of slaves to America ended= slaves were smuggled into the US AFTERWARDSMost increases in the US slave population = natural increase – distinguishes American slavery from all others!!Slaves were an investment Southern investment in slaves= $2 billion (1860 price $1800 for prime field hand)Masters cared for slaves like most expensive property2. Slavery hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole (slaves from upper South drained to deep south)= slave women in the Old South could earn freedom by bearing up to 13 children.
25White masters often forced themselves on slave women= malatto children Slave Auctionsslaves sold alongside horses, cows & pigsfamilies were separated- for bankruptcy or inheritance
26The Life of SlavesThere is no clear or simple answer to describe the life of slaves. Treatment varied from master to master, mansion to house, and region to region.hard grueling work, ignorance, oppressionworked from dusk until dawnwork & lives of slaves managed by a white “overseer” or black “driver”.no political rights-only min. protection from arbitrary murderthe whip served as a reminder of white mastery & substitute for wages (strong- willed slaves sent to a “breaker”)
27Life in the “Black Belt” area from SC and Georgia to Alabama, Mississippi, & Louisianalife was harder here than in the Old Southmajority of blacks lived on plantations in slave communities of 20 or more (75% of the population)maintained a fairly stable family life & African-American cultureOld SouthBorder statesDeep South/Black Belt
28New western areas were harshest for slaves: (LA, TX, MS, AL) Punishment was often brutal to intimidate slaves not to defy the master’s authority.New western areas were harshest for slaves: (LA, TX, MS, AL)Images courtesy of the Library of Congress
29African- American Culture & Family lived in stable two parent familiesnamed children after grandparents or forebear’s masterReligious practices: influenced by preachers of the Second Great Awakening (mix of African & Christian traditions)emphasized stories in the Bible- like captivity of Israelitescall & response style of preaching- adapted from African “ringshout”In some cases, slaves lived in stable two parent families.Named after grandparents or forebear’s masterIn other circumstances, due to selling of slaves, Children were primarily raised by their mothers, who often dominated the home in slave quarters• This pattern continued after slavery was abolished.Religious practices of slaves were impaced by the 2nd Great Awakening, but they blended elements of Christianity with their native African religions such as voodoo.Certain elements of Christianity were very appealing (e.g. everyone is equal in heaven, Christ ministering to the poor and The book of Exodus in the Bible was particularly popular (Jews, led by Moses had escaped Egypt)A call and response tradition from Africa was a strong component of slave religious meetings which was adapted from the African tradition of “ringshout”
31Free black communities were often centered around churches such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church founded by Richard Allen in 1794.Allen became one of the most influential black leaders in the antebellum periodHe founded Sabbath schools to teach literacy and supported political organizations that sought to help blacks (e.g. abolitionism)Wikipedia Commons History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1891) by Daniel A. Payne - http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/payne/paynefp.jpg
32Burden of Bondagemost states passed laws which prohibited the education of slaves. education leads to ideas=9/10 of adult slaves illiterate at start of Civil War)Slave Resistanceslaves conduced work slow downs (led to myth of black “laziness”)slaves stole goods produced by or purchased by their laborconducted sabotageDenmark Vesey Revolt (1822): Charleston SC; led by a free black- foiled by informers= Vesey & 30 others hanged.Nat Turner Rebellion (1831): a black preacher (Nat Turner) led an uprising & killed 60 whites (mainly women & children)- Vesey & others hangedSlave revolts1. Stono Rebellion, 1739a. South Carolina slaves fled toward Florida killing whites on the way but did not succeed.b. Led to a more oppressive slave system in the South during the colonial period2. Gabriel Prosser, 1800a. A slave blacksmith in Virginia planned a military slave revolt and recruited 150 men.b. Rebellion did not materialize and Prosser & 26 others were hanged.3. Denmark Vesey, a freed mulatto in Charleston, planned the largest ever revolt in 1822 but it never materialized.a. A slave informer advised his master of the plot.b. Vesey and 30 others were publicly hanged.4. Nat Turner’s revolt, 1831 (most significant of the 19th centurya. Sixty Virginians were slaughtered, mostly children and women.•Wave of killing slowed down the revolt’s aim of capturing weapons and fomenting a larger rebellion.•Largest slave revolt ever in the Southb. Over 100 slaves were killed in response; Turner was hanged.
33CREDIT: “Horrid massacre in Virginia,” 1831(. ) CREDIT: “Horrid massacre in Virginia,” 1831(?). Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Reproduction Number LC-USZSignificance: Produced a wave of anxiety among southern plantation owners that resulted in harsh laws clamping down further on the slave institution.
35Key Concept 5.2.IBAbolitionists, although a minority in the North, mounted a highly visible campaign against slavery, adopting strategies of resistance ranging from fierce arguments against the institution and assistance in helping slaves escape to willingness to use violence to achieve their goals.Source: College Board, AP United States History Course and Exam Description (Including the Curriculum Framework)
36Abolitionism Black Slavery’s Toll on Whites Southern whites developed a “siege” mentality (surrounded by potentially rebellious blacks angered by northern abolitionist propaganda).Abolitionism1st emerged at the time of the Am. Revolution (Quakers)Early abolitionists wanted to colonize blacks= The American Colonization Society (1817)= 1822 free African-American founded Liberia (capital-Monrovia)Over 40 years- 15,000 freed blacks colonized back to Africa* Most blacks did not wish to be sent back to AfricaColonization remained a popular but non-practical solution- espoused by men like Abraham Lincoln .Slavery took it’s toll on whitesSouthern white paranoia developed a “siege” mentality/ they were under siege by slave revolts or abolition1. Feared more reprisals by slaves (like Nat Turner’s revolt)2. Infuriated by abolitionist propaganda in the North they saw it inciting slaves.3. Saw biological racial superiority as a justification for slaverySource: U.S. State Department
37Early Emancipation in the North Wikipedia Commons
391833 Britain freed slaves in the West Indies Abolitionism Gains SteamBefore the 1830’s- abolition was not seen as much of a threat to the South (example: Benjamin Lundy (Quaker) & James Birney (slave holder) gave speeches in south pushing gradual emancipation.By the 1830’s- abolitionism gained new energyInfluenced greatly by the Second Great Awakening admonition to rid America of the sin of slavery1833 Britain freed slaves in the West IndiesTheodore Weld: evangelized by Charles Grandison Finney in NY’s “Burned Over District”; spoke to the mass of rural uneducated farmers .Arthur & Lewis Tappan (NY merchants): 1832 paid Weld’s way to Lane Theological Seminary (Ohio)= Weld & “ Lane Rebels” expelled in 1834.Weld went across the Old Northwest preaching anti-slaverypublished American Slavery as It Is (1839)= influenced Harriet Beecher StoweTheodore Dwight WeldEvangelized by Charles Grandison Finney in NY’s “Burned-Over District” in the 1820sin 1832, Weld’s went to Lane Theological Seminary in Ohio (Weld and the “Lane Rebels” were expelled in 1834 for debating the controversial issue of slavery in Cincinnati (very close to slave holding KY)Early test to academic freedom and free speechWeld appealed to rural farmers in the Ohio Valley where slavery was unpopularArthur and Lewis Tappan: wealthy New York merchants. (in 1832, they paid Weld’s way to Lane Theological Seminary in Ohio Funded the Anti-Slavery Society, and the LiberatorWeld wrote American Slavery As It Is (1839): Among the most effective abolitionist works ever written and supposedly influenced Harriet Beecher Stowe
40Radical Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison: published the Liberator (abolitionist newspaper).Waged a 30 year war on slavery in the US (MOST MILITANT)= demanded the north secede from the South.Helped found the American Antislavery Society (1833)co-collaborator: Wendell Phillips (the “golden trumpet” of abolitionism)- wore no cotton cloth/ate no cane sugar.Black AbolitionistsFrederick Douglas: greatest black abolitionist; escaped slavery; lectured to anti-slavery groups.Wrote his own autobiography- Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas.Douglas turned to politics to end slavery2. Sojourner Truth: freed black woman; fought for abolition & women’s rights.William Lloyd Garrison a. Published the first issue of his Liberator, a militant antislavery newspaper, in Boston in1831Symbolized the beginning of the radical abolitionist movementb. He demanded that the "virtuous" North secede from the "wicked" South.Yet, offered no practical solutions for ending slavery.c. Inspired abolitionists to found the American Anti-Slavery SocietyGarrison’s co-collaborator was Wendell Phillips – an ostracized Boston patrician who was known as "abolition’s golden trumpet"Perhaps most important abolitionist; had a major impact on politics during the Civil War as he argued for emancipation.One of the finest orators of the 19th century was another product of the 2nd Great AwakeningFollowed Garrison but was more politically practical in the 1860s. He wore no cotton cloth and ate no cane sugar (boycott)Frederick Douglass a. Greatest of the black abolitionistsPublished The North Star, his own abolitionist newspaper b. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845): depicted his life as a slave, struggle to read and write, and his escape tothe North at age 21. c. Flexibly practical (in contrast to Garrison who was stubbornly principled) d. Looked to politics to end slavery.Backed the Liberty party in 1840 and the Republican party in the 1850s
424. Martin Delaney- advocate of black colonization 3. David Walker: Appeal to Colored Citizens of the World (1829)advocated a bloody revolt.4. Martin Delaney- advocate of black colonization1820’s Antislavery Societies more popular in the South (below Mason-Dixon Line) than in the NorthVirginia legislature debated emancipationSouthern states passed laws forbidding emancipation & tightened slave codesPost –slave revolts- Abolitionist Garrison party blamed by Southerners1832 Nullification Crisis: heightened southerners fears & suspicionsDavid Walker: Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World,1829Advocated a bloody violent end to slavery.Martin DelaneyOne of the few blacks to seriously advocate black mass recolonization in Africa.
44Southerners Defend Slavery “Positive Good”- Southerners argued that slavery was supported by the Bible & AristotleSlavery rescued Africans from barbaric conditions of Africamaster-slave relationship was like familyblack slavery vs. wage slavery of the north1836 The Gag Rule: Southern politicians pushed a resolution that all anti-slavery appeals submitted to the House of Representative would be shelved.a clear limit on right to petition the governmentJohn Quincy Adams- ex-president fought this for 8 years=finally repealed.US Government Postal Service- ordered postmasters to destroy abolitionist newspapers being delivered South & allowed the South to arrest postmasters who refused.Positive Good:Claimed slavery was supported by the Bible (Genesis) and Aristotle (as white slavery existed in ancient Greece).Slavery helped civilize and Christianize AfricansMaster-slave relationships resembled those of a "family."Black Slavery vs. Wage Slavery in the North George Fitzhugh -- most famous pro-slavery apologist a. Contrasted happiness of slaves with "northern wage slaves." b. Slaves breathed fresh air in the south as opposed to stuffy factories that sickened northern workers. c. Full employment for blacks existed in the South. d. Slaves were cared for in sickness and old age unlike northern workers who had no safety net.1836 The Gag Rule: Southern politicians pushed a resolution that all anti-slavery appeals submitted to the House of Representative would be shelved.a clear limit on right to petition the governmentJohn Quincy Adams- ex-president fought this for 8 years=finally repealed.US Government Postal Service- ordered postmasters to destroy abolitionist newspapers being delivered South & allowed the South to arrest postmasters who refused.
45This 1839 cartoon provides a satire on the "gag rule" in the House of Representatives. Representative John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts is featured pinned to the ground protecting petitions against slavery.Image courtesy of Library of Congress
46Abolitionist Impact in the North Extreme abolitionists (Garrisonians) were resented for a long time in many parts of the North.Northerners respected the Constitution’s proclamations on property rightsNortherners were owed $300 million by 1850’s by SouthernersNorthern textile mills would shut down= unemployment for many. (“Doughface” –any northern politician who sided with the south)1835- William Lloyd Garrison- attacked & almost hanged by a mob (Boston) “Broadcloth Mob”1837- *Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy killed by a mob (Ill.)Most respectable politicians like Lincoln tended to avoid strict abolitionistsBy 1850’s- abolitionism started to touch many northerners;Many saw the South’s position differently= want to limit the spread of slavery any further.Elijah Lovejoy: Militant editor of an antislavery newspaper in Illinois.a. His printing press was destroyed four times; 4th time it was thrown into a river and Lovejoy was killed by a mob who also burned his warehouse in 1837b. He became an abolitionist martyr.
47Elijah P. LovejoyWood engraving of the pro-slavery mob burning down Winthrop Sargent Gilman's warehouse