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Chapter 6 Golden Age 1927-1939. Golden Age of Flying Adventure Adventure Exploration Exploration Sport Sport Airplanes Airplanes Increased safetyIncreased.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Golden Age 1927-1939. Golden Age of Flying Adventure Adventure Exploration Exploration Sport Sport Airplanes Airplanes Increased safetyIncreased."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Golden Age

2 Golden Age of Flying Adventure Adventure Exploration Exploration Sport Sport Airplanes Airplanes Increased safetyIncreased safety ReliabilityReliability FrequencyFrequency

3 Charles Lindbergh Early Life Early Life Worked on farmWorked on farm Dropped out of U. of WisconsinDropped out of U. of Wisconsin Flying Flying Flying lessons – 1922Flying lessons – hours of dual instruction8 hours of dual instruction Wing-walking/parachutingWing-walking/parachuting Bought Curtiss-Jenny – 1923Bought Curtiss-Jenny – 1923 Continued barnstormingContinued barnstorming

4 Charles Lindbergh

5 Military aviation Military aviation Cadet Cadet Formation flyingFormation flying Bombing and strafingBombing and strafing 104 cadets in class104 cadets in class 18 graduated 18 graduated Lindberg finishes first Lindberg finishes first 2 nd lieutenant 2 nd lieutenant Released from active duty Released from active duty

6 Charles Lindbergh Robertson Aircraft Corporation Robertson Aircraft Corporation Airmail pilotAirmail pilot St Louis to ChicagoSt Louis to Chicago Tested airplanesTested airplanes Organized routesOrganized routes Hired pilotsHired pilots Arranged delivery trucksArranged delivery trucks 1 st airmail run – 15 April st airmail run – 15 April roundtrip flights per week 5 roundtrip flights per week Left in February 1927Left in February 1927

7 Charles Lindbergh Orteig Prize Orteig Prize $25,000 prize$25,000 prize First nonstop flightFirst nonstop flight Between New York and ParisBetween New York and Paris Either directionEither direction Financial support Financial support St Louis business communitySt Louis business community $15,000 business loan$15,000 business loan

8 Spirit of St Louis Wanted monoplane Wanted monoplane Reduced dragReduced drag Single engineSingle engine Additional fuel tankAdditional fuel tank Periscope addedPeriscope added Ryan Aircraft Ryan Aircraft $10,580$10,580 Test flights – April 1927Test flights – April 1927 Flew fromFlew from San Diego to St Louis San Diego to St Louis St Louis to Roosevelt Field St Louis to Roosevelt Field

9 Other Attempts Rene Fonck (21 Sep 1926) Rene Fonck (21 Sep 1926) Crashed S-35 on takeoffCrashed S-35 on takeoff Survived – two diedSurvived – two died Naval aviators (April 1927) Naval aviators (April 1927) Died during test flightDied during test flight French airmen (8 May 1927) French airmen (8 May 1927) Nungesser & ColtNungesser & Colt Never seen againNever seen again Clarence Chamberlin Clarence Chamberlin Richard Byrd Richard Byrd

10 Atlantic Flight Coast-to-coast speed record Coast-to-coast speed record 21 hours 20 minutes21 hours 20 minutes Packed for trip Packed for trip 4 sandwiches4 sandwiches 2 canteens of water2 canteens of water Army rationsArmy rations Takeoff – 20 May 1927 Takeoff – 20 May :52 AM07:52 AM 450 gallons of gas450 gallons of gas 20 feet clearance of wires20 feet clearance of wires

11 Atlantic Flight Challenges Challenges Skimming over storm cloudsSkimming over storm clouds Flying as low as 10 feetFlying as low as 10 feet IcingIcing Flying blind in fogFlying blind in fog Navigating by starsNavigating by stars Landing Landing Le Bourget AirportLe Bourget Airport 21 May May :22 PM10:22 PM

12 Charles Lindbergh Won Orteig Prize Won Orteig Prize Awarded Legion of Honor Awarded Legion of Honor Chevalier of Royal Order Leopold Chevalier of Royal Order Leopold Distinguished Flying Cross Distinguished Flying Cross Promoted to Colonel Promoted to Colonel Congressional Medal of Honor Congressional Medal of Honor Time “Man of the Year” Time “Man of the Year” Brief flights in Europe Brief flights in Europe Longines watch Longines watch

13 Charles Lindbergh 1 st Goodwill Tour 1 st Goodwill Tour Sell aviationSell aviation Promote commercial aviationPromote commercial aviation 20 July to 23 October20 July to 23 October Visited all 48 states Visited all 48 states 82 cities 82 cities 30 million people 30 million people 22,000 miles 22,000 miles Logged 260 hours 45 minutes Logged 260 hours 45 minutes 147 speeches 147 speeches 1,290 parade miles 1,290 parade miles

14 Charles Lindbergh 1 st Goodwill Tour 1 st Goodwill Tour Pilot applications tripledPilot applications tripled Licenses aircraft quadrupledLicenses aircraft quadrupled PassengersPassengers 1927 – 5, – 5, – 173, – 173,405 3,000% increase 3,000% increase

15 Charles Lindbergh 2 nd Goodwill Tours 2 nd Goodwill Tours Nonstop Washington to Mexico CityNonstop Washington to Mexico City 26 hours 15 minutes 26 hours 15 minutes 17 Latin America countries17 Latin America countries 9,000 miles 9,000 miles Flew airplane to WashingtonFlew airplane to Washington Donated to Smithsonian Donated to Smithsonian 174 flights 174 flights 489:28 hours logged 489:28 hours logged

16 Charles Lindbergh “Crime of the Century” “Crime of the Century” Move to Europe Move to Europe Return to U.S.Return to U.S. Temporary call-up to active dutyTemporary call-up to active duty Dr. Alexis Carrell Dr. Alexis Carrell Glass perfusion pumpGlass perfusion pump Future heart surgeries possibleFuture heart surgeries possible Travel to Germany Travel to Germany Report on German aviationReport on German aviation German awardGerman award

17 Charles Lindbergh America First America First Proposed neutrality act with GermanyProposed neutrality act with Germany Resigned commissionResigned commission Anti-Semetic Anti-Semetic FBI investigates LindbergFBI investigates Lindberg Future heart surgeries possibleFuture heart surgeries possible United Aircraft United Aircraft Tech representative - PacificTech representative - Pacific Flew over 50 combat missionsFlew over 50 combat missions Brigadier General appointment Brigadier General appointment

18 ADVENTURE, EXPLORATION, AND SPORT Dole’s Pacific Air Race Dole’s Pacific Air Race $35,000 prize$35,000 prize Nonstop flightNonstop flight Oakland to HonoluluOakland to Honolulu 15 airplanes entered15 airplanes entered 3 crashed before race 3 crashed before race

19 Dole Derby 16 August August participated8 participated 2 crashed on takeoff 2 crashed on takeoff 2 went missing 2 went missing 1 returned for repairs 1 returned for repairs Search for missingSearch for missing DisappearedDisappeared 2 planes completed race2 planes completed race Wooloroc Wooloroc Art Goebel and Bill DavisArt Goebel and Bill Davis Aloha Aloha Second prize - $10,000Second prize - $10,000

20 Other Pacific Crossings Oakland to Sidney, Australia Oakland to Sidney, Australia 31 May to 9 June31 May to 9 June 83 hours 38 minutes 83 hours 38 minutes Japan to Wenatchee, Washington Japan to Wenatchee, Washington Clyde Pangborn Clyde Pangborn October 1931October 1931

21 Atlantic Crossings South Atlantic Ocean South Atlantic Ocean Italian Francesco de PinedoItalian Francesco de Pinedo Amelia Earhart Amelia Earhart Solo, nonstop transatlantic flight Solo, nonstop transatlantic flight James Mollison James Mollison First east-to-west solo crossingFirst east-to-west solo crossing England to Cape TownEngland to Cape Town Airship Graf Zeppelin Airship Graf Zeppelin 18 crossings (S. Atlantic)18 crossings (S. Atlantic)

22 Round the World Graf Zeppelin Graf Zeppelin Lakenhurst start/stopLakenhurst start/stop 21 days, 5 hours, 31 minutes21 days, 5 hours, 31 minutes 20,651 miles20,651 miles Wiley Post Wiley Post days 15 hours 51 minutes 8 days 15 hours 51 minutes 1933 – solo1933 – solo 7 days 18 hours 49 minutes 7 days 18 hours 49 minutes Monoplane “Winnie Mae” on both tripsMonoplane “Winnie Mae” on both trips

23 Round the World Howard Hughes Howard Hughes Lockheed Super ElectraLockheed Super Electra 3 days, 19 hours3 days, 19 hours Polar Flights Polar Flights ByrdByrd South Pole – November 1929 South Pole – November 1929 Russian crewRussian crew First nonstop great-circle flight First nonstop great-circle flight Soviet Union to United States Soviet Union to United States 63 hours 17 minutes 63 hours 17 minutes

24 Italian Distance Flight Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini Chicago World’s Fair Chicago World’s Fair Squadron of airplanes (Flying Boats)Squadron of airplanes (Flying Boats) 25 airplanes25 airplanes One lost enroute One lost enroute Flew in formation over Fair Flew in formation over Fair One lost on return flight One lost on return flight

25 MacRobertson Air Race October 1934 October 1934 $75,000 prize$75,000 prize England to MelbourneEngland to Melbourne No limit to aircraft/power/crew size No limit to aircraft/power/crew size 5 compulsory stops 5 compulsory stops Initial field - 60 Initial field - 60 Start of race – 20 Start of race – 20 9 finished race 9 finished race Scott and Black winners (Britain) Scott and Black winners (Britain) 71 hours 0 minutes71 hours 0 minutes

26 ADVENTURE, EXPLORATION, AND SPORT Dole’s Pacific Air Race Dole’s Pacific Air Race Atlantic Crossing Atlantic Crossing Round the World Round the World Polar Flights Polar Flights Italian Distance Flights Italian Distance Flights MacRobertson Air Race MacRobertson Air Race

27 ALTITUDE FLIGHTS Altitude Flights Altitude Flights Speed Flights Speed Flights French Raids French Raids Light Airplanes Light Airplanes Autogiros Autogiros Homebuilt Aircraft Homebuilt Aircraft Flying FleasFlying Fleas Homebuilt MovementHomebuilt Movement Gliding Gliding

28 ALTITUDE FLIGHTS Flight over Mt. Everest (29,030 ft) Flight over Mt. Everest (29,030 ft) April 1933April 1933 PV.3 Torpedo BomberPV.3 Torpedo Bomber Lord Clydesdale/Dave McIntyreLord Clydesdale/Dave McIntyre Balloonists Balloonists Explorer I Explorer I Captain Orvil Anderson Captain Orvil Anderson More than 11 miles More than 11 miles Explorer II Explorer II 72,395 ft (13.7 miles) 72,395 ft (13.7 miles)

29 SPEED FLIGHTS Absolute Record Absolute Record (May 1927) (May 1927) (November 1927) (November 1927) (March 1928) (March 1928) (1931) (1931) (1934) (1934) (March 1939) (March 1939) (April 1939) (April 1939)

30 LIGHT AIRPLANES Popularity of airplanes Popularity of airplanes Manufacturers produced small planesManufacturers produced small planes Private pilots Private pilots High performance High performance Competitive aviators Competitive aviators De Havilland D.H. Moth 60De Havilland D.H. Moth 60 Bi-plane Bi-plane Two-seater Two-seater Over 1,000 built (1925 – 1934) Over 1,000 built (1925 – 1934) Taylor Aircraft CompanyTaylor Aircraft Company Piper Aircraft CorporationPiper Aircraft Corporation StinsonStinson WacoWaco

31 ADVENTURE, EXPLORATION, AND SPORT

32 Golden Age Autogiros Autogiros Both rotor and propellerBoth rotor and propeller Rotor generates lift Rotor generates lift Propeller draws aircraft forward Propeller draws aircraft forward Competitive aviators Competitive aviators Juan de La Cierva (Spain) Juan de La Cierva (Spain) Homebuilt Aircraft Homebuilt Aircraft Standard feature of aircraftStandard feature of aircraft Heath “Super Parasol” kitHeath “Super Parasol” kit Popular Mechanics Popular Mechanics Pietenpol’s “Air Camper”Pietenpol’s “Air Camper” Modern Mechanix Modern Mechanix

33 Flying Fleas Henri Mignet Henri Mignet Built own airplanesBuilt own airplanes Inspired homebuilding movementInspired homebuilding movement “The Flea of the Sky” “The Flea of the Sky” “a kite with an auxiliary engine”“a kite with an auxiliary engine” Did not have Did not have AileronsAilerons SlotsSlots ElevatorsElevators CowlingCowling Flea rally Flea rally

34 ADVENTURE, EXPLORATION, AND SPORT

35 Gliding Germany Germany Enrollments increased yearlyEnrollments increased yearly 1930s – 10,000 members 1930s – 10,000 members Investigated thermalsInvestigated thermals Fly in front of storm Fly in front of storm Cloud to cloud Cloud to cloud City thermals City thermals

36 Commercial Airlines and Airliners Aéropostale Aéropostale Airmail service between France and S. AmericaAirmail service between France and S. America Strong government supportStrong government support Competed with LufthansaCompeted with Lufthansa Longest line of routes in worldLongest line of routes in world Scandal in 1930sScandal in 1930s Lost subsidyLost subsidy Liquidation and bankruptcyLiquidation and bankruptcy

37 Commercial Airlines and Airliners French Aviation French Aviation Merged 5 airlines into 1 (Air France)Merged 5 airlines into 1 (Air France) Air Orient Air Orient Air Union Air Union CIDNA CIDNA SGTA SGTA Aeropostale Aeropostale Air France Air France National airlineNational airline

38 Commercial Airlines and Airliners French Aviation French Aviation 1930s – decline in aviation1930s – decline in aviation Poor domestic economy Poor domestic economy Government corruption Government corruption Civil war in Spain Civil war in Spain Fasicm Fasicm Military strength Military strength 1937 – produced 37 planes/month1937 – produced 37 planes/month Custom craft techniques Custom craft techniques

39 Commercial Airlines and Airliners Deutsche Luft Hansa Deutsche Luft Hansa Installed radios on large transportsInstalled radios on large transports Instrument rating compulsory-1926Instrument rating compulsory – refreshments for passengers1928 – refreshments for passengers Large European networkLarge European network Flew more milesFlew more miles Transoceanic RoutesTransoceanic Routes N. Atlantic Ship-to-land service N. Atlantic Ship-to-land service Floatboat off passenger ship to New York Floatboat off passenger ship to New York S. Atlantic service S. Atlantic service

40 Commercial Airlines and Airliners Deutsche Luft Hansa Deutsche Luft Hansa International CooperationInternational Cooperation Reduce competition along routes Reduce competition along routes China service – 1930 China service – 1930

41 Commercial Airlines and Airliners British Airlines British Airlines Imperial AirwaysImperial Airways Neglected domestic routes Neglected domestic routes Did not improve colonial routes Did not improve colonial routes HillmanHillman British AirwaysBritish Airways British government British government Divided international routesDivided international routes Imperial – long Empire routesImperial – long Empire routes British Airways – short Empire routesBritish Airways – short Empire routes

42

43 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States Air Mail Act of 1925Air Mail Act of 1925 Stimulated formation of airlines Stimulated formation of airlines Air Mail Act of 1930Air Mail Act of 1930 Premium to airlines Premium to airlines Transported passengers and mail Transported passengers and mail

44 Commercial Airlines and Airliners Mergers Mergers United Airlines ---- Boeing’s United Aircraft and Transport CorporationUnited Airlines ---- Boeing’s United Aircraft and Transport Corporation Eastern Airlines ---- Florida Airways and Pitcairn AviationEastern Airlines ---- Florida Airways and Pitcairn Aviation TWA ---- Transcontinental and Western AirTWA ---- Transcontinental and Western Air American Airlines small airlinesAmerican Airlines small airlines

45 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States Air Commerce ActAir Commerce Act Bureau of Lighthouses Bureau of Lighthouses Airway development and maintenanceAirway development and maintenance Light beacons, navigational aidsLight beacons, navigational aids Bureau of Standards – government lab Bureau of Standards – government lab Aeronautical researchAeronautical research Coast and Geodetic Survey Coast and Geodetic Survey Mapping airwaysMapping airways Commerce Department Commerce Department Air regulationsAir regulations Administration of Aeronautics BranchAdministration of Aeronautics Branch

46 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States Air Commerce ActAir Commerce Act Test/license pilots Test/license pilots Issue airworthiness certificates Issue airworthiness certificates Make/enforce safety rules Make/enforce safety rules Establish airways Establish airways Operate/maintain aids to air navigation Operate/maintain aids to air navigation Investigate accidents and incidents Investigate accidents and incidents

47 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States JeppesenJeppesen Airmail pilot – Elrey V. Jeppesen Airmail pilot – Elrey V. Jeppesen Recorded detailed notes in notebook Recorded detailed notes in notebook Charted “letdown procedures for emergency airfields along routes Charted “letdown procedures for emergency airfields along routes Other pilots requested info Other pilots requested info 1934 – published airway information 1934 – published airway information

48 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States Airmail ScandalAirmail Scandal 9 Feb Feb 1934 Postmaster James A. Farley Postmaster James A. Farley Cancelled airmail contracts within U.S.Cancelled airmail contracts within U.S. Charged collusionCharged collusion Congress investigatesCongress investigates FDR – directs Army Air Corps to fly mail FDR – directs Army Air Corps to fly mail 19 February to 1 June 19 February to 1 June Not preparedNot prepared Fighter planes/trainers not appropriateFighter planes/trainers not appropriate Many pilots had little experienceMany pilots had little experience

49 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States Army Air CorpsArmy Air Corps Suspended service - March 10 to 19 Suspended service - March 10 to 19 Reorganize for safer operations Reorganize for safer operations 14,745 hours14,745 hours 1,707,559 miles flown1,707,559 miles flown $3.76 million dollars$3.76 million dollars $2.21 per-mile cost $2.21 per-mile cost Contract airlines - $0.54 Contract airlines - $0.54 Failed test of readinessFailed test of readiness

50 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States Air Mail ScandalAir Mail Scandal Congress force separation of Congress force separation of Airlines flying mail fromAirlines flying mail from Companies that produced aviation equipmentCompanies that produced aviation equipment DC-3 emerged DC-3 emerged RequirementRequirement Airlines carry passengers without subsidy Airlines carry passengers without subsidy Popular with passengersPopular with passengers Over 10,000 built in 1930s and 1940sOver 10,000 built in 1930s and 1940s

51 Commercial Airlines and Airliners United States United States Pan AmericanPan American Scheduled service in 1927 Scheduled service in 1927 Juan Trippe Juan Trippe Secured monopoly rights on routes Secured monopoly rights on routes Passenger service across Pacific Ocean Passenger service across Pacific Ocean Prepared routesPrepared routes Constructed basesConstructed bases

52 Commercial Airlines and Airliners Airships Airships British AirshipsBritish Airships R. 100 R. 100 German AirshipsGerman Airships Graf Zeppelin Graf Zeppelin Hearst funds Hearst funds Hindenberg Hindenberg Commercial Aviation Commercial Aviation

53 Aviation Radio and Military Aviation Early Radios Early Radios “Radios must be improved a lot”“Radios must be improved a lot” 775 of 8,000 civil airlines775 of 8,000 civil airlines Only 326 two-way capabilityOnly 326 two-way capability Four-Course Radios Four-Course Radios Two directional signals “N” & “A”Two directional signals “N” & “A” Figure 8 patternFigure 8 pattern On-course signal – steady dashOn-course signal – steady dash Morse CodeMorse Code

54 Aviation Radio and Military Aviation Accidents Accidents Lack of familiarity with radio navigationLack of familiarity with radio navigation Faulty receptionFaulty reception Dec 1936 – Jan 1937Dec 1936 – Jan airline crashes 5 airline crashes Martin Johnson Martin Johnson

55 Aviation Radio and Military Aviation Pacific Radios Pacific Radios Pan AmPan Am Long-range direction-finding equipmentLong-range direction-finding equipment Amelia Earhart flightAmelia Earhart flight

56 Military Aviation Chaco War Chaco War Abyssinia Abyssinia Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War Nazi Germany Nazi Germany Sino-Japanese Conflict Sino-Japanese Conflict Military Expansion Military Expansion


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