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Totalitarianism Governments had increased control during WWI Rejected liberalism Will of the masses dominated over the individual Obedience & participation.

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Presentation on theme: "Totalitarianism Governments had increased control during WWI Rejected liberalism Will of the masses dominated over the individual Obedience & participation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Totalitarianism Governments had increased control during WWI Rejected liberalism Will of the masses dominated over the individual Obedience & participation Often radically nationalistic Could be far right (fascists) or far left (communists) Technologically savvy

2 Italy 1919: verge of bankruptcy high inflation & unemployment unhappy with terms of Versailles Mussolini’s Fascio di Combattimento appealed to veterans; used brute force & nationalistic rhetoric 1922: march on Rome w/ his Black Shirts Il Duce

3 Fascism in Italy Nationalistic ideology Militarization Rampant sexism Education; massive indoctrination & propaganda Loyal to landowners & industrialists; NOT the lower classes Secret Police; censorship Lateran Accords

4 Fascist Youth

5 State “Corporatism” 1926: National Council of Corporations created Guilds of employers & employees established to manage the economy Supported by small capitalists & the middle class; all felt threatened by the rise of Socialists Goal  harmonize the interests of workers, managers and the state by abolishing class warfare. Reality  This system hampered technological progress and destroyed workers’ rights.

6 Weimar Germany : Versailles’ punishments Ruhr, hyperinflation & unemployment National Socialism Beer Hall Putsch : stability & prosperity Nazis organize & plan : The Great Depression Nazis come to power Hyperinflation in Germany

7 The German Mark

8 Ruhr Valley Fiasco

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10 Weimar Republic Politics

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12 Unemployment during the Great Depression

13 The Great Depression

14 Spanish Civil War 1931: King Alfonso XIII abdicated; a Popular Front formed : Spanish Civil War Nationalists vs. Republicans Franco’s Nationalists win “dress rehearsal for WWII” Picasso’s Guernica Republican At the Instant of Death

15 Picasso’s Guernica

16 The Democracies & Depression France: 1920s: Raymond Poincare Ruhr Valley fiasco Cartel of the Left 1936: Leon Blum’s Popular Front; “France’s New Deal” Great Britain: massive unemployment Keynesian Economics Massive Unemployment

17 Culture Between the Wars Mass Media: radio & cinema BBC Goebbels’ The Triumph of Will Art: surrealism & modern art Dali’s Persistence of Memory Dadaism Literature: “stream of consciousness” Dali’s Persistence of Memory


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