Presentation on theme: "French Revolution 1789-1815. France: A Little Background Information The 4 C’s Clovis united Frankish tribes war and religion (Christianity) Charles Martel."— Presentation transcript:
France: A Little Background Information The 4 C’s Clovis united Frankish tribes war and religion (Christianity) Charles Martel protected the Kingdom Charlemagne expanded into an empire war & religion Treaty of Verdun divided empire into 3 (France, Germany + Lorraine) Capetians rule 300years made monarchy stronger Estates general established (consisted of 3 groups: Clergy-Nobility-Rest of population)
3 Estates First EstateSecond EstateThird Estate Clergy (Church) Provided Social Services Controlled 10% land Collected tithes Did Not Pay Taxes Nobility Top jobs in Gov’t, Army, Courts & Church Did Not Pay Taxes Rest of Population 98% Population Included Middle Class (lawyers, journalists, professors, skilled artisans) Rural Peasants City Workers Responsible for taxes
Characteristics of Absolutism Basic Principle Monarch rules by divine right PoliticalRuler = unlimited power; individuals are subjects loyalty and obedience. SocialRuler upper classes dominate lower classes. Ceremonies symbolize ruler’s power. EconomicRuler encourages industry and trade to strengthen the economy. CulturalRuler dominates cultural life either as patron of arts or by censorship.
1.Why were members of each Estate unhappy? 1 st Estate Clergy: Enlightenment undermined religion and social order. 2 nd Estate Nobles: resented Absolutism the rising middle class felt threatened Jacques Necker (king’s financial advisor) suggested taxation for nobles. 3 rd Estate: privileges enjoyed by the other estates Peasants suffered from poor wages heavy taxes poor harvests lack of rights.
2.What were causes of the financial crisis that gripped France? DEFICIT SPENDING (large debt from): Expensive wars Extravagant spending Poor harvests Economic recession (not enough $ to buy stuff)
3. Why did Louis XVI call the Estates General in 1789, which hadn’t been summoned in 175yrs? Verge of Bankruptcy, bread riots nobles denouncing the throne. King asked each estate to prepare cahiers (notebooks listing grievances) All insisted on reform
4. What were the results of this decision? Bastille Stormed July 14, 1789 Symbol of Freedom French Revolution begins National Assembly formed Tennis Court Oath
5. What role did the people of Paris play in the French revolution? Paris = capital revolutionary center of France. Revolutionary factions National Guard and the Paris Commune competed for power in Paris. Parisians marched on Versailles for bread insisted the royal family accompany them back to Paris.
6. What were the results? The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Declared all men were equal and had natural rights to: liberty property security resistance to oppression. Civil Constitution of Clergy Made bishops and priests elected and salaried officials ended papal authority over French Church. (under state control) Constitution of 1791 set up a limited monarchy new legislative Assembly
7. Why did some people support the revolution? start of a new age for justice and equality
8. Why did other people oppose the revolution? Fear violence Declaration of Pilnitz European powers support monarch
Radical Days 1792-August 10-> King and Queen are imprisoned. Monarchy abolished France = Republic 1793-> Mountain=Jacobins (Radicals) vs. Girondins Jacobins Take over Robespierre, Marat, Danton Committee of Public Safety formed (12 members) Absolute control Reign of Terror begins King Louis XVI executed January Queen Marie Antoinette executed October
1. Why did revolutionaries fear that the Revolution was in danger? Leaders driven to preserve and extend revolution France was at war w/ much of Europe. Peasants were revolting. (Sept. massacres) Sans-Culottes demanded relief from food shortages and rising prices. Counterrevolution
2. What did revolutionaries do in response? Set up Committee of Public Safety (enemies=death) Committee of Public Safety = Reign of Terror Results: Over 17,000 killed Changes in daily life (clothes), arts (classical), and women’s rights (divorce easier, inherit property, no politics) Church shut down Robespierre killed 1794-> Reign of Terror ends 1795-> Directory in control Third Constitution drafted 5 man directory 2 house legislative elected by male citizens of property. held power until 1799
Napoleon ( ) Rise to power-> Rapid Born on island Corsica Early fame based on military victories. Overthrew Directory (coup d’etat) Set up Consulate (3 men) He’s #1 Eventually named himself Emperor
What did he do? Napoleonic Code Reflected Enlightenment principles Undid some revolutionary reforms (women) Centralized Power ALL men could vote (no elections after 1804) Plebiscites (ballots for voting) Created Nation-wide Public School System Primary, secondary, lycees (military), technical schools. Stressed obedience + military values Science and Math promoted Increased Currency (money)- stabilized economy Sold Louisiana (827,000 square miles to America (T.Jefferson) for $15 million=60 Francs
And there’s more… Improved relations w/Church Instituted censorship of press Encouraged + strengthened military forces United in his empire almost whole of Europe (not since Roman Empire + Charlemagne) Annexed lands (added Austria+ Italy) Made Alliances (nepotism=family) Abolished the Holy Roman Empire, renamed Confederation of the Rhine.
Fall of Napoleon Engaged in costly warfare causing bankruptcy 1805 Battled Britain (in war and economy) Battle of Trafalgar (water) Continental System=France Blockade=Britain Lead to War of 1812 w/America 1805 Battle of Austerlitz (France vs. Austria & Russia)-France wins Austria + N. Italy Annexed lands revolted-guerilla warfare in Spain Battle of Wagram-Austria wants revenge-lost 1812 Battled Russia- 600,000 French soldiers left for 1,000 trek to Moscow-20,000 returned Defeated by Russia (scorched earth tactic) 1813 Battle of Nations (Leipzig) Russia, Britain, Austria + Prussia defeat France.
Fall of Napoleon 1814 Napoleon abdicates (gives up power) Exiled to Elba Louis XVIII named ruler (Louis XVI’s brother) 1815 Napoleon returns for 100 days (March) Battle of Waterloo defeated by Britain, Russia, Prussia + Austria in 1 day 1821 Banished and St. Helena
Congress of Vienna Create a lasting peace: BALANCE OF POWER Countries + Representatives Austria-> Prince Clemens von Metternich Russia-> Alexander I Britain-> Lord Robert Castlereaugh France-> Prince Charles Maurice de Tallyrand
What did they do? Redrew map of Europe Surround France w/ strong countries Protect Monarchy (legitimacy) in France, Spain, Portugal and Italian city-states Set up Quadruple Alliance (Austria, Russia, Prussia + Britain) Balance of Power (Concert of Europe) met to discuss problem within Europe to keep the peace
Phases of the French Revolution Moderate Phase National Assembly Feudalism abolished Issued declaration of rights “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” Reorganized Church (took back land) Established constitutional monarchy (1791) Included legislative assembly-replaced old provinces w/ 83 departments Abolished guilds Ended Church interference Radical Phase National Convention “Sans-Culottes” Radicals (Jacobins) take control of legislative assembly and set up national Convention Abolish Monarchy Declares France a Republic Suffrage for all male citizens Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette executed (1793) Committee of Public safety set up Robespierre=Reign of Terror Guillotine=40,000 executed Directory Moderate constitution of 1795 Five-man Directory established (2 legislative bodies elected by male citizens w/ property Dictatorial Riots suppressed Corrupt leadership Chaos threatened Napoleon Overthrows Directory Consulate set up (Napoleon #1) N= Consul for life N=Emperor of France Economic reform Religious reform Napoleonic code Established Military victories create French Empire French defeat in Battle of Nations= Napoleon’s abdication and exile. #1 Monarchy-Old Order/Estates General