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Powers of Congress Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Powers of Congress Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Powers of Congress Chapter 11

2 The Scope of Congressional powers
Chapter 11 Section 1 The Scope of Congressional powers

3 Congressional Power Only has powers delegated to it by the Constitution Expressed: in specific wording Implied: reasonable deduction from expressed powers Inherent: powers held by all national governments

4 Strict Versus Liberal Construction
Strict Constructionist: those who insisted that Congress should only be able to exercise its expressed powers and only a few implied powers

5 Strict Versus Liberal Construction
Liberal Constructionists: favored a broad construction of the powers given to Congress.

6 The Expressed Powers of Money and Commerce
Chapter 11 Section 2 The Expressed Powers of Money and Commerce

7 Article I, Section 8 This is where the majority of Congress’ powers come from. 18 separate clauses 27 different powers explicitly given

8 The Power to Tax Tax: a charge levied by government on persons or property to meet public needs. Power is limited No church taxes Poll taxes Only for public purposes No taxes on exports Direct taxes must be apportioned among the states according to their populations All indirect taxes must be levied at the same rate in all parts of the country (tobacco)

9 The Borrowing Power The power to borrow money on the credit of the United States Deficit financing: the US spends more than it makes Public Debt: all money borrowed not yet repaid, plus interest.

10 The Commerce Power Congress’ power to regulate interstate and foreign trade Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 New York v. Federal Gov’t with regulation of steamboats Court’s ruling ends shipping monopolies based on commerce

11 The Currency Power The power to coin money and regulate it’s value
The Bankruptcy Power Congress may establish uniform laws for bankruptcy across the U.S. The distributing of assets to those who one owes debts

12 Other Expressed Powers
Chapter 11 Section 3 Other Expressed Powers

13 Foreign Relations Powers
Many powers expressed Matters affecting security of nation or immigration are inherent powers War Powers 8 of the listed powers deal with war and national defense

14 Other Expressed Powers
Naturalization: process by which citizens of another country become citizens of the U.S. Postal Power: establish post offices, and routes. Copyrights and Patents: The exclusive right of an author to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her creative work. Life of author, plus 70 years The sole right to manufacture, use, or sell “any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” 20 years, may be extended by act of Congress

15 Other Expressed Powers
Weights and Measures: “fix the standard of weights and measures.” 1838 established pound, ounce, mile, foot, gallon, quart, etc… 1866 legalized use of metric 1901 National Bureau of Standards in Commerce Department

16 Power Over Territories and Other Areas
Eminent Domain: the inherent power to take private property for public use. May also acquire property through purchase or gift. Manage territories District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands

17 Judicial Powers They create all federal courts below the Supreme Court
Define federal crimes and establish their punishments

18 Chapter 11 Section 4 The Implied Powers

19 Necessary and Proper Clause
Article I, Section 8, Clause 18 Where it draws its implied powers McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 Supreme Court ruled for McCulloch under the Necessary and Proper Clause Decision written by Chief Justice John Marshall

20 The Doctrine in Practice
Doctrine: is a principle or fundamental policy. The doctrine of implied powers has been applied in instances too numerous to count.

21 The Non-legislative Powers
Chapter 11 Section 5 The Non-legislative Powers

22 Electoral Duties The House of Representatives may be called to elect a President if no candidate receives a majority of the electoral votes. 12th Amendment, each state gets 1 vote, must win majority Also chose VP, but by individual vote of Senate Thomas Jefferson 1801, John Quincy Adams 1825 VP Richard M. Johnson 1837

23 Impeachment All civil officers of the U.S. may “be removed from office on impeachment for conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.” Military officers are not considered “civil officers”, nor are members of Congress. House has sole power to impeach Senate has the sole power to try, to judge. Requires majority vote in House, 2/3 vote in Senate

24 Impeachment Andrew Johnson 1868 Senate acquit
Based on his breaking a law that was passed after he vetoed it Bill Clinton 1998 Senate acquit “inappropriate relationship” with a White House intern

25 Executive Powers Two executive powers given to the Senate
Appointments: all made by President must be confirmed by Senate 12 of 600 appointments have been rejected Treaties: made “by president with advice and consent of the Senate,….provided two thirds of the Senators present concur.”

26 Investigatory Power May investigate any matter that falls within the scope of its legislative powers.

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