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Capital Structure Refers to the mix of debt and equity that a company uses to finance its business Capital Restructuring Capital restructuring involves changing the amount of leverage a firm has without changing the firm’s assets The firm can increase leverage by issuing debt and repurchasing outstanding shares The firm can decrease leverage by issuing new shares and retiring outstanding debt 1

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Capital Structure Theory Modigliani and Miller Theory of Capital Structure – Proposition I – firm value – Proposition II – WACC The value of the firm is determined by the cash flows to the firm and the risk of the assets To change firm value – Change the risk of the cash flows – Change the cash flows 2

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Capital Structure Theory Under Three Special Cases Case I – Assumptions – No corporate or personal taxes – No bankruptcy costs Case II – Assumptions – Corporate taxes, but no personal taxes – No bankruptcy costs Case III – Assumptions – Corporate taxes, but no personal taxes – Bankruptcy costs 3

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Case I – Propositions I and II Value of the firm (Proposition I) – The value of the firm is NOT affected by changes in the capital structure – The cash flows of the firm do not change; therefore, value doesn’t change WACC (Proposition II) – The WACC of the firm is NOT affected by capital structure 4

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Case I - Equations WACC = R A = (E/V)R E + (D/V)R D R E = R A + (R A – R D )(D/E) – R A is the “cost” of the firm’s business risk, i.e., the risk of the firm’s assets – (R A – R D )(D/E) is the “cost” of the firm’s financial risk, i.e., the additional return required by stockholders to compensate for the risk of leverage 5

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Case II Interest is tax deductible Therefore, when a firm adds debt, it reduces taxes, all else equal The reduction in taxes increases the cash flow of the firm How should an increase in cash flows affect the value of the firm? 7

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Case II - Example Unlevered FirmLevered Firm EBIT5,000 Interest0500 Taxable Income5,0004,500 Taxes (34%)1,7001,530 Net Income3,3002,970 CFFA3,3003,470

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Interest Tax Shield Annual interest tax shield – Tax rate times interest payment – 6,250 in 8% debt = 500 in interest expense – Annual tax shield =.34(500) = 170 Present value of annual interest tax shield – Assume perpetual debt for simplicity – PV = 170 /.08 = 2,125 – PV = D(R D )(T C ) / R D = DT C = 6,250(.34) = 2,125 9

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Case II – Value of the firm (Proposition I) The value of the firm increases by the present value of the annual interest tax shield – Value of a levered firm = value of an unlevered firm + PV of interest tax shield – Value of equity = Value of the firm – Value of debt Assuming perpetual cash flows – V U = EBIT(1-T) / R U – V L = V U + DT C 10

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Example: Case II – Value of the firm (Proposition I) Data – EBIT = 25 million; Tax rate = 35%; Debt = $75 million; Cost of debt = 9%; Unlevered cost of capital = 12% – V U = 25(1-.35) /.12 = $135.42 million – V L = 135.42 + 75(.35) = $161.67 million – E = 161.67 – 75 = $86.67 million 11

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Note also that you can calculate the value of the firm as the sum of the present values of the cash flows to debt and equity – V L = D + E = R D D/R D + {(EBIT – R D D)(1-t)}/R E = 75 + {(25-6.75)(.65)}/0.1369 12 EBIT – R D D1-tR E - see calculation on slide #15 below = 86.65

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Case II – WACC (Proposition II) The WACC decreases as D/E increases – R A = (E/V)R E + (D/V)(R D )(1-T C ) – R E = R U + (R U – R D )(D/E)(1-T C ) – The after-tax cost of debt is lower – The cost of equity does not rise as fast as it does when T C = 0 14

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Example: Case II – WACC (Proposition II) – R E = 12 + (12-9)(75/86.67)(1-.35) = 13.69% – R A = (86.67/161.67)(13.69) + (75/161.67)(9)(1-.35) R A = 10.05% Suppose that the firm changes its capital structure so that the debt-to-equity ratio becomes 1. What will happen to the cost of equity under the new capital structure? – R E = 12 + (12 - 9)(1)(1-.35) = 13.95% What will happen to the weighted average cost of capital? – R A =.5(13.95) +.5(9)(1-.35) = 9.9% 15

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Case III Now we add bankruptcy costs As the D/E ratio increases, the probability of bankruptcy increases This increased probability will increase the expected bankruptcy costs At some point, the additional value of the interest tax shield will be offset by the increase in expected bankruptcy cost At this point, the value of the firm will start to decrease and the WACC will start to increase as more debt is added 17

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Bankruptcy Costs Direct costs – Legal and administrative costs – Ultimately cause bondholders to incur additional losses – Disincentive to debt financing Financial distress – Significant problems in meeting debt obligations – Most firms that experience financial distress do not ultimately file for bankruptcy 18

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Indirect bankruptcy costs – Larger than direct costs, but more difficult to measure and estimate – Stockholders want to avoid a formal bankruptcy filing – Bondholders want to keep existing assets intact so they can at least receive that money – Assets lose value as management spends time worrying about avoiding bankruptcy instead of running the business – The firm may also lose sales, experience interrupted operations and lose valuable employees 19

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Conclusions Case I – no taxes or bankruptcy costs – No optimal capital structure Case II – corporate taxes but no bankruptcy costs – Optimal capital structure is almost 100% debt – Each additional dollar of debt increases the cash flow of the firm Case III – corporate taxes and bankruptcy costs – Optimal capital structure is part debt and part equity – Occurs where the benefit from an additional dollar of debt is just offset by the increase in expected bankruptcy costs 22

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Managerial Recommendations The tax benefit is only important if the firm has a large tax liability Risk of financial distress – The greater the risk of financial distress, the less debt will be optimal for the firm – The cost of financial distress varies across firms and industries and as a manager you need to understand the cost for your industry 24

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Capital Structure Decisions: Part I

Capital Structure Decisions: Part I

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