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Chapter © 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Problems with Credit Solving Credit Problems Bankruptcy as an Option 19
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 2 Chapter 19 Lesson 19.1 Solving Credit Problems GOALS Discuss good credit management rules and warning signs that you are overextended. List sources of credit advice. Explain how to avoid credit scams.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 3 Chapter 19 Credit Management Exercising good credit management means following an individual plan for using credit wisely. It involves recognizing your limits and planning your use of credit.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 4 Chapter 19 The 20/10 Rule The 20/10 Rule is a plan to limit the use of credit to no more than 20 percent of your yearly take-home pay, with payments of no more than 10 percent of monthly take home pay. Mortgage loans and monthly payment commitments for housing are not included in these limits. However, all other types of borrowing are included in the limits of the 20/10 Rule.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 5 Chapter 19 Danger Signs You pay for everything with credit. You often pay late or at the end of the grace period. You often pay one credit card by shifting the balance to another. You worry about how you will be able to pay your bills. You recognize that if an emergency arises, you would have inadequate unused credit to take care of it.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 6 Chapter 19 Danger Signs Your credit cards are all near the limit. Your credit card companies are raising the interest rates because of late payments and charges that have exceeded your credit limit. You must time your payments carefully because otherwise you would not have enough income to pay your bills. You skip some payments in order to make other payments. Your credit rating is falling because you have too much credit. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 7 Chapter 19 A Credit Payment Plan A credit payment plan is a record of your debts and a strategy for paying them off. List all debts, with enough information to analyze which ones should be paid off first. Focus on paying one off at a time, while making only minimum payments on others. As one gets paid off, shift your focus to the next priority. A credit payment plan works best when you are responsible and do not incur new debt.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 8 Chapter 19 Sources of Credit Advice If you find you still need help to get back on your feet, credit advice is available from several reliable sources. Be aware, however, that some sources will try to take advantage of you and leave you worse off than you were before.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 9 Chapter 19 Credit Counseling Credit counseling is a service to help consumers manage their debt load and credit more wisely. It is available from nonprofit, government- sponsored, or commercial credit counseling services. These organizations can help you redeem your credit and manage your credit better in the future.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 10 Chapter 19 Debt Management Plan (DMP) A debt management plan (DMP) involves giving money each month to a credit counseling organization. The organization uses your money to pay your unsecured debts according to the payment plan the counselor develops with you and your creditors. Typically, the creditors have agreed to lower your interest rates and waive fees. These concessions may be available only through a credit counseling organization. Usually a DMP take 48 months or longer to complete. You must agree not to use credit while the plan is underway.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 11 Chapter 19 Online Credit Advice There are good online sources of credit advice, both to help you get out of trouble and to stay out of trouble. Examples: At the FTC web site, you will find consumer information about credit traps to avoid. At the MyMoney web site, you can find information on credit, credit repair, and current rip-offs against consumers.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 12 Chapter 19 Debt Negotiation Debt negotiation programs are not the same as debt management or credit counseling. With a debt negotiation program, a company you hire will call your creditors on your behalf and negotiate reductions in the amounts you owe.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 13 Chapter 19 Debt Adjustment People who are in deeper credit trouble than advice can solve often go to a finance company for debt adjustment. Debt adjustment is the formal process of taking over your debt situation for a period of time, after which you will be free of debt. There are two types of debt adjustment: Debt Adjustment Service Plan Debt Consolidation Loan
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 14 Chapter 19 Credit Repair Credit repair is the process of reestablishing a good credit rating. You can obtain copies of your credit reports, challenge incorrect information, and respond to disputes. If your credit rating is poor for good reasons, you can begin to repair your record by using credit responsibly from this point on.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 15 Chapter 19 Credit Scams Promises and guarantees Gold and platinum cards
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 16 Chapter 19 Lesson 19.2 Bankruptcy as an Option GOALS List and describe the types of bankruptcy. Discuss the major causes of bankruptcy. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of declaring bankruptcy.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 17 Chapter 19 What Is Bankruptcy? Bankruptcy is a legal process that relieves debtors of the responsibility of paying their debts or protects them while they try to repay. When you declare bankruptcy, you are said to be insolvent. This means you have insufficient income and assets to pay your debts. Bankruptcy is a second chance, but it carries serious consequences.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 18 Chapter 19 Bankruptcy Laws and Their Purpose Bankruptcy law in the United States has two goals. The first is to protect debtors by giving them a fresh start, free from creditors’ claims. The second is to give fair treatment to creditors competing for debtors’ assets.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 19 Chapter 19 Types of Bankruptcy Involuntary bankruptcy Voluntary bankruptcy Chapter 11 bankruptcy Chapter 7 bankruptcy Chapter 13 bankruptcy
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 20 Chapter 19 Involuntary Bankruptcy Involuntary bankruptcy occurs when creditors file a petition with the court, asking the court to declare you, the debtor, bankrupt. If the court agrees, it takes over your assets to pay off as much of your debt as possible. Involuntary bankruptcy does not occur very often, because most creditors would prefer to be repaid in full over a period of time rather than settle only for a portion of your remaining assets.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 21 Chapter 19 Voluntary Bankruptcy Voluntary bankruptcy, the most common kind, occurs when you file a petition with a federal court asking to be declared bankrupt. The court decides how much debt you will pay, what assets you can keep, and what debts will be cancelled. Usually the value of all the bankrupt debtor’s assets is not enough to pay off all the debts. The court sells the assets and gives each creditor a share.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 22 Chapter 19 Discharged Debts Discharged debts are debts erased by the court during bankruptcy proceedings. Creditors can no longer seek payment for these debts. Some debts are not discharged. These include child support, alimony, income taxes and penalties, student loans, and court-ordered damages due to malicious or illegal acts. Once declared bankrupt, an individual cannot file for bankruptcy again for several years.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 23 Chapter 19 Liquidation or Reorganization Liquidation The court sells the debtors’ assets and uses the proceeds to pay as much of the debt as possible. The remaining debt is then discharged. Reorganization Debtors may keep their property but must submit a payment plan to the court for repaying a substantial portion of their debts.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 24 Chapter 19 Chapter 11 Chapter 11 bankruptcy is a reorganization form of bankruptcy for businesses that allows them to continue operating under court supervision as they repay their restructured debts.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 25 Chapter 19 Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Commonly called straight bankruptcy. Chapter 7 bankruptcy is a liquidation form of bankruptcy for individuals. It wipes out most debts in exchange for giving up most assets. The advantage of Chapter 7 bankruptcy is immediate debt relief. Recent bankruptcy laws make it more difficult for a person to qualify for straight (liquidation) bankruptcy.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 26 Chapter 19 Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Chapter 13 bankruptcy is a reorganization (payment plan) form of bankruptcy for individuals. It allows debtors to keep most of their property and use their income to pay a portion of their debts over three to five years. Under Chapter 13, often referred to as the wage-earner’s plan, some debts are totally discharged, while others are paid off as agreed within the payment period.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 27 Chapter 19 Legal Advice A person considering bankruptcy should seek good legal advice. In most states, it is possible to file for bankruptcy without an attorney. But the law is complicated, and a good bankruptcy attorney can help you navigate through the details. The attorney can also assist you in deciding which bankruptcy plan will work best to help you solve your credit problems.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 28 Chapter 19 Reaffirmation of Debts Creditors may ask debtors to agree to pay their debts, even after bankruptcy has discharged them. Reaffirmation is the agreement to pay debts that have been legally discharged. Examples of reasons to reaffirm A friend or family member cosigned the loan and you don’t want to burden this person with the debt. You don’t want your car to be repossessed.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 29 Chapter 19 Major Causes of Bankruptcy Job loss Emotional spending Failure to budget and plan Catastrophic injury or illness
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 30 Chapter 19 Advantages of Bankruptcy Debts are erased. Exempted assets are retained. Exempted property refers to those assets considered necessary for survival. Certain incomes are unaffected. The cost is small.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 31 Chapter 19 Disadvantages of Bankruptcy Credit is damaged. Property is lost. You may not qualify for liquidation. Some debts continue. Some debts can be reaffirmed. Co-signers must pay.
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