Presentation on theme: "Risk and Return and the Financing Decision: Bonds vs. Stock."— Presentation transcript:
Risk and Return and the Financing Decision: Bonds vs. Stock
Bonds are debt instruments issued by financial institutions, the municipal/state/federal government, and companies to public investors to obtain capital. have a set maturity, e.g. 10, 20, 30 years. carry a certain interest rate.
Sources of Capital for Growth Profits (earnings, net income) Issue new shares of stock Borrowings Loan from bank Issue bonds in bond market
= Examples of Basic Business Risk in the Creemee Business Weather Running out of inventory Ordering too much inventory Choosing wrong location for the day Too many/too few employees What could go wrong in the Creemee Business?
Business Risk Technology company Grocery store Basic business risk amount of debt Basic business risk Financial Risk Total risk
The Financing Decision 1. Assess the level of Basic Business Risk. 2. Determine how much Financial Risk is appropriate, given the level of Basic Business Risk. Basic Business Risk + Financial Risk = Total Risk of the Firm Stockholders care about Total Risk.
Advantages/Disadvantages of Debt Financing Advantages Less risky for investor; therefore cheaper source of capital than stock Tax deduction for interest results in lower after tax cost to company Use someone else’s money to increase return to Stockholders (ROE) pay interest $10 borrow $100 earn $15 pay stockholders $5 Disadvantages Increased Financial Risk (risk of Bankruptcy) In bankruptcy, the creditors are paid first. Stockholders are last in line.
After Tax Cost of Debt CO. A Sales $ 500 Operating Expenses 400 EBIT (operat.income) 100 Int. Expense 0 Earnings before taxes 100 Taxes (40%) 40 Net Income 60 CO. B (borrowed $100) $ (= $4 Tax savings) Pre-Tax Cost of Debt: After-Tax Cost of Debt:
Advantages/Disadvantages of Equity Financing (issuing stock) Advantages Permanent Capital No increase in Financial Risk No legal obligation to pay dividends or return stockholders’ money Disadvantages Highest risk position for investor makes it the most expensive form of capital Stockholders want a higher return for investing in stock than in the company’s bonds.
Why Lenders Charge Interest 1. Default risk: risk of not getting your money back 2. Opportunity cost: You could invest your money in something else. 3. Inflation risk
Which Bond Will Carry the Higher Interest Rate?
Bond Yield Comparisons Compare the bonds in each of the two sets.
Summary Characteristics of Bonds/Loans Pays Interest Fixed Maturity Date Legal Obligation Rate set when issued Compensates investor for: Opportunity Cost Inflation Expectations Default Risk Default gives lender right to force bankruptcy Payment before stockholders in bankruptcy
Why Buy A Stock? Become an Owner of a Company Objective: Make money Concerns: What level of return? Return related to performance of the company Forms of Return: Dividends Increase in Stock Price Why would the stock price go up ?????
Creemee Company Valuation Co. B has the higher relative valuation, and the market is valuing the company appropriately. Co. A has the higher relative valuation, and the market is valuing the companies differently from you. Fin. Application Assignment
Summary Characteristics of Common Stock (Equity) Stockholders can receive a return through: Increase in Stock Price (buy low/sell high) Dividends Dividend Decision Based on earnings performance of Company Made by the Board No requirement to pay dividends No bankruptcy if dividend declared is not paid Relative Valuation of Stock by Investors related to: Future earnings growth prospects Rate of return expected to be earned by equity holders (ROE) Risk of not getting this expected return (business or financial risk)