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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Chapter 5 Profit, Profitability, and Break-Even Analysis

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Learning Objectives Understand the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. Distinguish between profit and profitability. Compare accounting and entrepreneurial profit. Understand the relationship of profit margin and asset turnover on the earning power of a company.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Learning Objectives (continued) Given the variable costs, revenue, and fixed costs of a business, determine the break-even point and contribution margin. Construct and analyze a break-even chart when given variable costs, revenue, and fixed costs of a business.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Learning Objectives (continued) Understand the use of leverage and its relationship to profitability and loss. Distinguish between Chapters 11, 13, and 7 bankruptcy. Compare and contrast the degree of operating, financial, and combined leverage and their effect on the profitability of a corporation.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Efficiency and Effectiveness Efficiency is obtaining the highest possible return with the minimum use of resources. Effectiveness, on the other hand, is accomplishing a specific task or reaching a goal.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Profit Versus Profitability Profit is an absolute number that is earned on an investment. › Accounting profit, for a business, is typically shown at the bottom of an income statement as net income. › Entrepreneurial profit is the amount that is earned above and beyond what the entrepreneur would have earned if he or she had chosen to invest time and money in some other enterprise.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Profit Versus Profitability (continued) Profitability can be measured in a business by using a ratio that is obtained by dividing net profit by total assets. Profitability, therefore, is our Return on Assets.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Earning Power The earning power of a company can be defined as the product of two factors: › The company’s ability to generate income on the amount of revenue it receives, which is also known as net profit margin; and › Its ability to maximize sales revenue from proper asset employment, also known as total asset turnover.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Earning Power Formulas Earning power is equal to net profit margin multiplied by total asset turnover which is equal to return on investment (total assets).

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Break-Even Analysis Break-even analysis is a process of determining how many units of production must be sold, or how much revenue must be obtained, before we begin to earn a profit. For break-even quantity:

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Break-Even Analysis (continued) Break-even dollars: Where VC is variable cost expressed as a percentage of sales (revenue). › For retail firm: VC percentage =(Cost of Goods Sold)/(Net Sales) › For manufacturing firm: VC percentage = (Variable cost of a unit)/(Selling price)

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Break-Even Analysis (continued) Contribution margin is the amount of profit that will be made by a company on each unit that is sold above and beyond the break-even quantity. Contribution margin is also the amount the company will lose for each unit of production by which it falls short of the break-even point.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Profit and Break-Even Desired profit with break-even analysis in quantity to produce. › VC is variable cost per unit Desired profit with break-even analysis in dollars. › VC is a percentage of sales dollar (e.g., cost of goods sold as a percent).

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Break-Even Charts

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Leverage Leverage uses those items that have a fixed cost to magnify the return to a company. Fixed costs can be related to company operations or related to the cost of financing. › Interest expenses paid on the amount of debt incurred is the fixed cost of financing. › A firm is heavily financially leveraged if the fixed costs of financing are high.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Leverage (continued) Degree of operating leverage (DOL) is the percentage change in operating income divided by the percentage change in sales.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Leverage (continued) Degree of financial leverage (DFL) is the percentage change in earnings per share divided by the percentage change in operating income.

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Entrepreneurial Finance, 4th Edition By Adelman and Marks PRENTICE HALL ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Leverage (continued) Degree of combined leverage (DCL) is the percentage change in earnings per share divided by the percentage change in sales.

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