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Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Capital Structure: Limits to the Use of Debt Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Capital Structure: Limits to the Use of Debt Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Capital Structure: Limits to the Use of Debt Chapter 15

2 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Key Concepts and Skills  Define the costs associated with bankruptcy  Understand the theories that address the level of debt a firm carries Tradeoff Signaling Agency Cost Pecking Order  Know real world factors that affect the debt to equity ratio

3 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter Outline 15.1 Costs of Financial Distress 15.2 Can Costs of Debt Be Reduced? 15.3 Integration of Tax Effects and Financial Distress Costs 15.4 Signaling 15.5 Shirking, Perquisites, and Bad Investments: A Note on Agency Cost of Equity 15.6 The Pecking-Order Theory 15.7 Growth and the Debt-Equity Ratio 15.8 How Firms Establish Capital Structure 15.9A Quick Look at the Bankruptcy Process

4 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.1 Costs of Financial Distress  Direct Costs Legal and administrative costs  Indirect Costs Impaired ability to conduct business (e.g., lost sales) Agency Costs  Selfish Strategy 1: Incentive to take large risks  Selfish Strategy 2: Incentive toward underinvestment  Selfish Strategy 3: Milking the property

5 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Example: Company in Distress AssetsBVMVLiabilitiesBVMV Cash$200$200LT bonds$300 Fixed Asset$400$0Equity$300 Total$600$200Total$600$200 What happens if the firm is liquidated today? The bondholders get $200; the shareholders get nothing. $200 $0

6 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Selfish Strategy 1: Take Risks The GambleProbabilityPayoff Win Big10%$1,000 Lose Big90%$0 Cost of investment is $200 (all the firm’s cash) Required return is 50% Expected CF from the Gamble = $1000 × $0 = $100 NPV = –$200 + $100 (1.50) NPV = –$133

7 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Selfish Strategy 1: Take Risks  Expected CF from the Gamble To Bondholders = $300 × $0 = $30 To Stockholders = ($1000 – $300) × $0 = $70  PV of Bonds Without the Gamble = $200  PV of Stocks Without the Gamble = $0 $20 = $30 (1.50) PV of Bonds With the Gamble: $47 = $70 (1.50) PV of Stocks With the Gamble:

8 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Selfish Strategy 2: Underinvestment  Consider a government-sponsored project that guarantees $350 in one period.  Cost of investment is $300 (the firm only has $200 now), so the stockholders will have to supply an additional $100 to finance the project.  Required return is 10%.  Should we accept or reject? NPV = –$300 + $350 (1.10) NPV = $18.18

9 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Selfish Strategy 2: Underinvestment Expected CF from the government sponsored project: To Bondholder = $300 To Stockholder = ($350 – $300) = $50 PV of Bonds Without the Project = $200 PV of Stocks Without the Project = $0 $ = $300 (1.10) PV of Bonds With the Project: – $54.55 = $50 (1.10) PV of Stocks With the Project: – $100

10 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Selfish Strategy 3: Milking the Property  Liquidating dividends Suppose our firm paid out a $200 dividend to the shareholders. This leaves the firm insolvent, with nothing for the bondholders, but plenty for the former shareholders. Such tactics often violate bond indentures.  Increase perquisites to shareholders and/or management

11 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.2 Can Costs of Debt Be Reduced?  Protective Covenants  Debt Consolidation: If we minimize the number of parties, contracting costs fall.

12 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.3 Tax Effects and Financial Distress  There is a trade-off between the tax advantage of debt and the costs of financial distress.  It is difficult to express this with a precise and rigorous formula.

13 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Tax Effects and Financial Distress Debt (B) Value of firm (V) 0 Present value of tax shield on debt Present value of financial distress costs Value of firm under MM with corporate taxes and debt V L = V U + T C B V = Actual value of firm V U = Value of firm with no debt B*B* Maximum firm value Optimal amount of debt

14 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin The Pie Model Revisited  Taxes and bankruptcy costs can be viewed as just another claim on the cash flows of the firm.  Let G and L stand for payments to the government and bankruptcy lawyers, respectively.  V T = S + B + G + L  The essence of the M&M intuition is that V T depends on the cash flow of the firm; capital structure just slices the pie. S G B L

15 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.4 Signaling  The firm’s capital structure is optimized where the marginal subsidy to debt equals the marginal cost.  Investors view debt as a signal of firm value. Firms with low anticipated profits will take on a low level of debt. Firms with high anticipated profits will take on a high level of debt.  A manager that takes on more debt than is optimal in order to fool investors will pay the cost in the long run.

16 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.5 The Agency Cost of Equity  An individual will work harder for a firm if he is one of the owners than if he is one of the “hired help.”  While managers may have motive to partake in perquisites, they also need opportunity. Free cash flow provides this opportunity.  The free cash flow hypothesis says that an increase in dividends should benefit the stockholders by reducing the ability of managers to pursue wasteful activities.  The free cash flow hypothesis also argues that an increase in debt will reduce the ability of managers to pursue wasteful activities more effectively than dividend increases.

17 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.6 The Pecking-Order Theory  Theory stating that firms prefer to issue debt rather than equity if internal financing is insufficient. Rule 1  Use internal financing first. Rule 2  Issue debt next, new equity last.  The pecking-order theory is at odds with the tradeoff theory: There is no target D/E ratio. Profitable firms use less debt. Companies like financial slack.

18 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.7 Growth and the Debt-Equity Ratio  Growth implies significant equity financing, even in a world with low bankruptcy costs.  Thus, high-growth firms will have lower debt ratios than low-growth firms.  Growth is an essential feature of the real world. As a result, 100% debt financing is sub-optimal.

19 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.8 How Firms Establish Capital Structure  Most corporations have low Debt-Asset ratios.  Changes in financial leverage affect firm value. Stock price increases with increases in leverage and vice-versa; this is consistent with M&M with taxes. Another interpretation is that firms signal good news when they lever up.  There are differences in capital structure across industries.  There is evidence that firms behave as if they had a target Debt-Equity ratio.

20 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Factors in Target D/E Ratio  Taxes Since interest is tax deductible, highly profitable firms should use more debt (i.e., greater tax benefit).  Types of Assets The costs of financial distress depend on the types of assets the firm has.  Uncertainty of Operating Income Even without debt, firms with uncertain operating income have a high probability of experiencing financial distress.  Pecking Order and Financial Slack Theory stating that firms prefer to issue debt rather than equity if internal financing is insufficient.

21 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.9 The Bankruptcy Process  Business failure – business has terminated with a loss to creditors  Legal bankruptcy – petition federal court for bankruptcy  Technical insolvency – firm is unable to meet debt obligations  Accounting insolvency – book value of equity is negative

22 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin The Bankruptcy Process  Liquidation Chapter 7 of the Federal Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 Trustee takes over assets, sells them, and distributes the proceeds according to the absolute priority rule  Reorganization Chapter 11 of the Federal Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 Restructure the corporation with a provision to repay creditors

23 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Quick Quiz  What are the direct and indirect costs of bankruptcy?  Define the “selfish” strategies stockholders may employ in bankruptcy.  Explain the tradeoff, signaling, agency cost, and pecking order theories.  What factors affect real-world debt levels?


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