Presentation on theme: " Ecology - the scientific study of the interaction between organisms and their environment Population – a group of individuals of the same species."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology - the scientific study of the interaction between organisms and their environment Population – a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area Community – consists of all the organisms of all the species that inhabit a particular area Ecosystem – consists of all abiotic factors in addition to the entire community of species that exist in that area
Biotic – the living components; predators, prey, parasites, competitors Abiotic – non living chemical and physical factors such as temperature, light, water and nutrients; also includes soil, altitude, climate, latitude
Ecosystem ecology – examines the energy flow and cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic components Landscape ecology – deals with the array of ecosystems and their arrangement in a geographic region Population ecology – examines factors that affect population size and composition
On our watery planet, these occupy most of the biosphere. Life originated in the oceans, and stayed there for nearly 3 billion years. The oceans are the most influential of all terrestrial features affecting climate and, hence, biomes. Aquatic biomes may be marine (average salinity 3%) freshwater (average salinity 1% or less) brackish (mixture of salt/fresh)
A lake is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localized in a basin that is surrounded by land. Lakes are inland and not part of the ocean, and are larger and deeper than ponds. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. However most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams.basin ocean ponds riversstreams
A river is a natural stream of fresh water larger than a brook or creek. A river flows toward another river, an ocean, a lake, or other large body of water. A river's source may be rainfall, a melting snowfield or a glacier, a spring, or the overflow of a lake. Streams that flow at a river source are the headwaters and are at the river's highest elevation. Most river headwaters begin in hills or mountain, but as the river flows downstream, it gains more water from other streams, rivers, springs, added rainfall, and other water sources.
oligotrophic - deep, nutrient poor, water very clear eutrophic - shallower, nutrient rich, murky with phytoplankton mesotrophic - in between the above two classifications
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.coastal waterriversstreams sea Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and ocean environments and are subject to both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water; and riverine influences, such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The inflow of both seawater and freshwater provide high levels of nutrients in both the water column and sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world.
A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally. Such areas may also be covered partially or completely by shallow pools of water. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, and bogs, among others. The water found in wetlands can be saltwater, freshwater, or brackish. The world's largest wetland is the Pantanal which straddles Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America.soil saturatedmoistureswamps marshesbogs watersaltwater freshwaterbrackishPantanal BrazilBoliviaParaguaySouth America
The intertidal zone (also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone) is the area that is exposed to the air at low tide and underwater at high tide (for example, the area between tide marks). This area can include many different types of habitats, with many types of animals like starfish, sea urchins, and some species of coral. The well known area also includes steep rocky cliffs, sandy beaches, or wetlandslittoral zoneairlow tidehigh tide cliffsbeacheswetlands
Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Corals are colonies of tiny living animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, and are formed by polyps that live together in groups.calcium carbonate corals stony coralspolyps Reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters. Also coral reef is a reef consisting of coral consolidated into limestone
Any water in the sea that is not close to the bottom or near to the shore is in the pelagic zone. The word pelagic comes from the Greek word pélagos, which means "open sea." The pelagic zone can be thought of in terms of an imaginary cylinder or water column that goes from the surface of the sea almost to the bottom. Conditions change deeper down the water column; the pressure increases, the temperature drops and there is less light. Greekwater column
The abyssal zone is the abyssopelagic layer or pelagic zone that contains the very deep benthic communities near the bottom of oceans. "Abyss" derives from the Greek word ἄ βυσσος, meaning bottomless. At depths of 4,000 to 6,000 meters (13,123 to 19,685 feet), this zone remains in perpetual darkness and never receives daylight.pelagic zonebenthicoceansGreek
Light is absorbed by water and by living aquatic organisms... photic zone - light sufficient for photosynthesis aphotic zone - light insufficient for photosynthesis Temperatures vary with depth, and aquatic habitats of any depth generally have a THERMOCLINE--a narrow band of water where temperature suddenly changes.
Neritic zone/littoral zone - inshore, shallow, high light levels Oceanic zone/limnetic zone - offshore, high light levels, upper regions of water column profundal zone - aphotic benthic zone - bottom substrate; often rich in detritus intertidal - region that is covered at high tide, but exposed at low tide pelagic zone - water column; contains both photic and aphotic regions