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Estonian approaches to Implementation of Nitrogen Directive Ain Kendra Jäneda Training and Advisory Center ESTONIA Regional Workshop on Agricultural Nutrient.

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Presentation on theme: "Estonian approaches to Implementation of Nitrogen Directive Ain Kendra Jäneda Training and Advisory Center ESTONIA Regional Workshop on Agricultural Nutrient."— Presentation transcript:

1 Estonian approaches to Implementation of Nitrogen Directive Ain Kendra Jäneda Training and Advisory Center ESTONIA Regional Workshop on Agricultural Nutrient Reduction Road to Compliance with EU Nitrate Directive

2 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20042 Content Few basic facts Transition of agriculture Regional differences Definition of Nitrogen-sensitive areas Monitoring of nitrogen in waters ACTION PLAN Measures to reduce nitrogen (investment)

3 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20043 Basic facts on Estonia Population – 1,356 million Area – 45,225 km 2 Forest – over 50% Agricultural land – under 33% Water – inland waterbodies 6,2% of territory –1150 lakes & 420 rivers (over 10 km length)

4 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20044 Transition of agriculture 1990-2003 Agricultural reform –Farming Law 1989 – 12,000 farms before reform –1991 - quick destruction of soviet system (350 farms) –Privatization of buildings & machinery Land reform 1993 still not completed (definition) –Restitution (1939) of possible, to former owners –Privatization to current users Agricultural employment –1990 – 136,800 –2000 – 28,700

5 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20045 Agricultural Land Use – 1980-2003

6 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20046 Use of land resources

7 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20047 Livestock 1980-2003

8 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20048 Livestock (relative) concentration

9 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.20049 Soil map – best areas for agriculture

10 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200410 Nitrate sensitive area 30 years of nitrate history – research 1998 Pandivere water protection area established 2003 Pandivere-Adavere nitrate-sensitive area (NVZ) has been established –Pandivere Upland – ground water accumulation area, a lot of karst springs, impact for almost all territory –Põltsamaa-Adavere limestone plateau – relatively thin soil cover on limestone bedrock, also karst areas, impact mostly local, identified as nitrate concentration over 50 mg/l –10% of Estonia, involving three counties, NVZ covers ca 160,000 ha of arable land

11 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200411 Map of Nitrogen-sensitive areas

12 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200412 Monitoring National water quality monitoring network functioning from 1992, earlier study-based From 2002 the network revised, according to requirements of ND Level – comparable data available from 1980-s in Adavere, much earlier periods in Pandivere Production level (intensity) below half (< 0,5 LU/ha), total nitrogen below normatives, but vulnerable and dangerous if/when production level will be restored Nitrate levels depending on water quantities, difficult to make deeper conclusions from figures depending more on weather than agriculture

13 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200413 NO 3 in groundwater

14 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200414 Nitrate ion in wells

15 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200415 N (general) – mg N /l - in rivers

16 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200416 Watershed Management Plans

17 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200417 Problems in NVZ Problems –Low quality of small drinking water sources –Poor water quality in surface water bodies –Poor groundwater quality in close areas of large farms Causes –Unprotected groundwater, carst areas –Information on good practices –Land use and manure management, not balanced fertilizer use –Point source of liquids (slurry, silage juice, wastewater) –Lack of funds – rural population to build deeper wells or water networks

18 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200418 Action Plan Action Plan for the nitrate sensitive Pandivere and Adavere-Põltsamaa area for the years 2004-2008 –Approved by regulation 318-k, 30.04.2004 –To limit impact of pollution caused by agricultural production on surface and ground water

19 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200419 AP - purposes 1.To co-ordinate agricultural and water management activities in the field of preservation of soil fertility and water management. 2.To support through information dissemination and training the use of all the manure for fertilising. 3.To guide agricultural land use so that the soil fertility would be preserved. 4.To find out, based on pilot studies, the possibilities of applying best from the point of view of soil and water protection available technologies and agricultural practices as well as optimal support schemes in nitrate sensitive areas. 5.To preserve the mostly good status of groundwater. 6.To preserve the mostly good status of surface waters. 7.To preserve the habitats of salmonids in watercourses. 8.To assist in supplying the population with healthy drinking water. 9.To ensure the required control, assessment, and databases of environmental monitoring and reporting. 10.To achieve a better compatibility in the next implementation period between agricultural and water management development plans, Estonian National Development Plan and Development plan of Estonian rural regions for the years 2004 to 2006

20 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200420 Obligatory measures (1 – winter, slopes) Period when use of fertilisers is prohibited: spreading of organic and mineral fertilisers is banned from 1 November to 31 March; Limited use of fertilisers on slopes: spreading of fertilisers on arable land the slope of which exceeds 10% is prohibited. Where the slope is 5–10%, surface spreading is not allowed from 1 November to 15 April;

21 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200421 Obligatory measures (2 - winter) Limited use of fertilisers on waterlogged, flooded, frozen or snow covered land: spreading of organic and mineral fertilisers is banned from 1 November to 31 March or when the land is covered with snow, frozen or waterlogged, as well as in periodically flooded sanitary protection zones and water protection zones of water bodies.

22 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200422 Obligatory measures (3 – water bodies) Use of fertilisers near water bodies: in the water protection zone of a water body fertilising is prohibited. For lakes, reservoirs, rivers and canals the width of the protection zone is 10 metres from the water’s edge, and 1 metre for artificial recipients of drainage systems until they fall into a natural watercourse.

23 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200423 Obligatory measures (4 – manure, silage) Requirements for manure and silage storages: –all farm buildings in which over 10 animal units of animals are kept, must have, depending upon the kind of animals, a manure storage or a manure storage and a dung water pit; –livestock - capacity for containing the manure and dung water of eight months; avoiding access of surface and ground water; leak proof; watertight; –on arable land only solid manure heaps that can be used in one vegetation period are allowed; –silage storages watertight; silage juice conducted into special tanks or dung water storages; at least 10 litres of juice per 1 m3 of the silage storage capacity.

24 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200424 Obligatory measures (5 - fertilizer) Maximum application amounts of fertilisers: –the average allowed amount of nitrogen that is applied to arable land with combined organic and mineral fertilisers is 170 kg per hectare per year; –for mineral fertilisers only this amount is 140 kg per hectare per year; amounts of mineral nitrogen exceeding 100 kg must be applied partially.

25 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200425 AP - implementation Ministry of Environment –Environmental Inspection –Environmental Departments in 3 counties –Environment Information Centre Ministry of Agriculture –Plant Production Inspectorate –ARIB –Jäneda Training- and Advisory Centre Ministries of Social and Internal Affairs (involved on drinking water) Council of Nitrate Sensitive Area

26 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200426 Actions Training of civil servants Guidelines Training of agricultural advisors Pilot studies Training and consulting in situ of producers Protection of recharge areas of groundwater intakes Healthy drinking water for private users Programme for control, assessment, monitoring, fulfilling & coordination NSA protection obligation notices & reports Harmonizing actions of WMP, NDP, RDP

27 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200427 Funding (‘000 EEK) 15,64 EEK = EUR 20042005200620072008 MoE5001700190016002600 MoA1600**2300**210015004100 Total2600*4500*40003100***6700*** *- BRSP co-funding ca 500 KEEK in 2004, same in 2005 – pilot studies, consulting **- TA of RDP (80% EU, 20% EST) ***- to be specified in detail in programming of 2007-2012 (RDP)

28 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200428 Measures Investment support – structural funds (SPD) Rural Development Program –Meeting EU standards (manure measure) –Agri-environment Commercial lending –HELCOM - BRSP project NEFCO commercial loan WB – GEF grant Environmental training –Usual commercial lending

29 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200429 Investment support – Measure 3.1 –Barn – incl manure storage & management Max 9,4 million EEK/year 2004 – 9 new manure storage facilities, 2 rec. (11,8+2,9M) 2004 – 12 manure removal equipment (1,8M) –Plant protection – incl manure spreading Max 3,1 million EEK/year 2004 – 9 manure spreaders (3,4M) 2004 – 42 fertilizers/seeders (1,9M) Support of up to 50% –LFA +10%, young farmers +5% Unfortunately, too high interest of beneficiaries to this measure has resulted in exceeding of estimated allocations, next years budget significantly reduced

30 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200430 Manure transport

31 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200431 Manure storage facilities

32 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200432 Manure spreading

33 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200433 RDP – support to meet EU req At least 10 LU – cattle, pig, sheep, goat Registered building (barn), investment plan, every year investment First year – 2004:2006 (8.10-5.11.2004) Yearly investment completed by 5.11 next year By latest end of 2008 meets EU req Grant 1252 EEK/LU/y up to 3 years Max 391.165 EEK/y 1.175.945 EEK total

34 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200434 RDP – Agri-environment Sub-measures: –Environment-friendly production –Organic farming –Endangered species Applications 17.05-15.06.2004 2004 applied: –EFP – 464,000 ha –Organic farming - 42,000 ha

35 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200435 Agri-Environment – req-d Main requirements –Field record –Manure <170 kg N/y/ha –No fertilizers & plant protection on natural grasslands –Accounting of veterinary substances EFP (environment-friendly production) –Fertilizing plan, max 170 kg incl mineral <100 kg –Crop rotation –pH & nutrient analyzes –Grassland management –Training

36 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200436 Agri-Environment - money EFP –field crops - 714 EEK/ha –grasslands - 331 EEK/ha excl seminatural grassland (2004 - MoE) Organic farming –Grassland management - 1156 EEK/ha At least 0,1 LU/ha, >50% organic livestock –Field crops - 1516 EEK/ha –Vegetable, orchards - 3764 EEK/ha Estonian Horse – 2550 EEK/y

37 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200437 BSRP-GEF-NEFCO grant/loan Training for all participants – environment and management issues NEFCO loan GEF grant to reduce interest payments Estonia – –20 farmers trained –first case approval received, starting bidding procedures (according to WB rules, International Shopping)

38 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200438 Commercial Lending Milk farms have been bought up by local financial investors Pig production largely owned by meat processing industries If by end of 2008 the requirements are still not OK – closing livestock farming Milk farms are relatively good investment also for commercial lending Problems are more related to pork and poultry sectors – too high production concentration

39 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200439 Open questions – data comparability & scalability (semi-) industrial livestock / poultry & land relation –Country–NUTS-NSA-region-farm–field level –NSA does not follow any administrative boundaries –Livestock Units / ha L.U. – pork-poultry? Which area? –No land, manure distribution contract based, but no such contract register –No interest for contracts from crop producers – manure fertilizing quality poor Ha – Available? Utilized? Feeding? Rearing? Kg N /ha /year (or manure tons) –Ha – of this year fertilized? Manure impact longer than year –UAA? Excluding seminatural grasslands? Arable?

40 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200440 Land Field register = eligible for area-based subsidies –EU - IACS = Utilized (UAA) + temp. unused UAA = Arable + natural grasslands Arable = fields + cultivated grasslands grasslands –1 year (in crop rotation) –2 to 5 years (lately renewed) –5 to 10 years (statistics count already as natural grassland) –Over 10 years (but on mineral land, probably renewed soon) –Natural & seminatural grasslands, never to renew but to restore

41 Ain Kendra - Vilnius - 14.09.200441 Thank you for attention Jäneda Training and Advisory Center – Ain Kendra - Livi Rooma – Ministry of Agriculture – Katrin Rannik –

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