Content Geology of the area. Problems. Engineering Solutions.
History Industrial revolution- Iron and ceramics Coal Iron ore (mining) Coke & limestone (blast furnaces) Sand (moulding cast iron) Clay (bricks, tiles) Today- World heritage site Tourism
Geology Geologically young Still developing Erosion & slippage will continue until balance reached Rocks originally deposited as horizontal strata before being tilted, folded and faulted to form present structure. Solid geology made up of Silurian & Carboniferous age rocks (400 and 280 million years old)
AgeUnitDescriptionAppox Thickne ss CarboniferousUpper Coal Measures Mudstones, Sandstones, Thin coal seams 120m Middle Coal Measures Mudstones, Sandstones, Thin coal seams 15m Lower Coal Measures Mudstones, Sandstones, Thin coal seams 15m Limestone SeriesLimestone55m Basalt SilurianWenlock LimestoneLimestone with interbedded siltstones 15-17m Thickwood bedsShales with limestone nodules15-25m Wenlock shalesMudstones with thin beds of limestone and bentonitic clay 100m +
Problem of Landsliding Gorge slopes covered by a complex of vaneer of colluvium. Rates of movement of colluvium vary over the gorge. ‘Active-landslip’ in more underdeveloped areas. Evidence of ground movement in developed areas. Still susceptible to more landslides.
Problems caused by mining Heavily mined during the industrial revolution. Waste material causing surcharge. Abandoned workings deteriorating. Mine voids creating drainage paths. Modern development causing local steepening and extra surcharge.