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Lecture 2 Photo of Rain in Anasazi Ruin by Ray RasmussenRay Rasmussen.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2 Photo of Rain in Anasazi Ruin by Ray RasmussenRay Rasmussen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 2 Photo of Rain in Anasazi Ruin by Ray RasmussenRay Rasmussen

2  Colorado River drainage system  Student activity: Map Colorado drainage system & highlight sources & dams  What’s the source of the Colorado River: San Juan Mountains in Colorado  Snowpack decreasing—and therefore stream flow- (http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/feature- articles/river-ecosystems) Example: dust from a spring storm in NN landed on the snowpack, turning it brown, thereby causing an early melt because more sunlight was absorbed.http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/feature- articles/river-ecosystems  Sacred Peaks—current controversy Snowbowl  Student Activity: Read Navajo-HopiPeaksArticle.pdfNavajo-HopiPeaksArticle.pdf  Arizona wants to divert water from reservations

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4  Increase loss of vegetation, erosion, dust storms  Student Activity: Read Dunehandout.pdfDunehandout.pdf  With loss of vegetation increase invasive species, such as (need photos)  Russian thistle  Spotted knapweed  Cheat grass  Bull-thistle  Extinction endangered species; Example: Hanging gardens  Migration north of species  Student activity: Read BirdsAndClimateReport.pdfBirdsAndClimateReport.pdf

5  Diseases moving North –West Nile virus, malaria; deaths due to extreme heat-Phoenix, reservations  Increase forest fires.  Student Activity: Read FuelingTheFire.pdfFuelingTheFire.pdf  Loss biodiversity---causes ecosystem instability  Affect grazing, agriculture----Knowledge tribes of water conservation systems and adaptation to drought for hundreds of years  Navajo—from top of Chuskas see abandoned fields and irrigation systems-  How much traditional knowledge lost? How can that knowledge be utilized?  Canyon de Chelly fields, grazing----less water

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7  Anasazi-system water collection/dams----Why abandoned?? (Anasazi Places: Ruins and Rock Art, A Photography Journey through some Anasazi Sites)Anasazi Places: Ruins and Rock Art, A Photography Journey through some Anasazi Sites  Ak-chin Farming  Tohono O’odham---divert water by separating channels into branching systems  Hopi waffle gardens  Student Activity:  List 12 lessons on water conservation from traditional farmers of Colorado Plateau (TwelveLessons.pdf)TwelveLessons.pdf  Lost species important culturally—medicinal, ceremonial, utilitarian plants/species  Need indigenous knowledge: species adapted to drought, dryland farming  Techniques, Drip –irrigation, cisterns, hydrology  Student Activity: Read BreedingDroughtResistantPlants.pdfBreedingDroughtResistantPlants.pdf

8  The cliffs of Canyon de Chelly are made of sandstone showing this area was once like the Sahara  The layers in the rock of the Grand Canyon have marine fossils showing this was once under the ocean  Therefore climate change has been part of Earth’s history for billions of years but only today is it occurring at a very rapid rate and this is Due to Human Impact

9 Mesquite Sweetgrass Piñon Pine

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11 Pediocactus bradyi Brady Pincushion Cactus  NESL Group 2, ESA LE  Only known from a 25 mile stretch along Marble Canyon, Coconino County AZ. On the Navajo Nation from just north of Navajo Bridge south to the vicinity of Sheep Springs Wash.  Restricted to soils derived from Moenkopi Shale overlain by Kaibab Limestone chips.  Threatened by off-road vehicle use, illegal collecting, trampling, drought, global climate change.

12 Sclerocactus mesae-verde Mesa Verde Cactus  NESL G2, ESA LT  Restricted to San Juan County New Mexico, and Montezuma County, Colorado.  Occurs on sparsely vegetated low rolling clay hills formed from the Mancos or Fruitland shale formations at 4,900- 5,500 ft.  Threatened by habitat destruction through urban development, off-road vehicle use, oil and gas development, pipeline and powerline construction, illegal collecting, drought related stresses, global climate change.

13 Astragalus cutleri Cutler’s Milk-vetch  NESL Group 2  Restricted to the Copper Canyon area, San Juan County, Utah. 90% of known population are on Navajo Nation lands.  Occurs in warm desert shrub communities, on sandy, seleniferous soils with level to moderate slopes, on the Shinarump and Chinle Formations.  Threatened by feral donkeys, global climate change.

14 Astragalus cremnophylax var. hevronii Marble Canyon Milk-vetch  NESL Group 3  Restricted to the east rim of Marble Canyon, in the vicinity of Shinumo Wash. Only known from the Navajo Nation.  Restricted to cracks in Kaibab Limestone slickrock formations.  Threatened by natural erosional processes, global climate change.

15 Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae Fickeisen Plains Cactus  NESL Group 3, Candidate  Restricted to Coconino & Mohave counties, AZ. On the Navajo Nation from Gray Mountain to southwest of Bitter Springs.  Occurs in soils overlain by Kaibab limestone along canyon rims and flat terraces along washes.  Threatened by off-road vehicle use, illegal collections, drought, trampling, invasion of exotic species, global climate change.

16 Astragalus beathii Beath’s Milk-vetch  NESL Group 4  Restricted to the Navajo Nation, Coconino County, AZ.  Occurs in sandy flats, red clay knolls, and gullied washes in badlands, on selenium-bearing soils derived from Moenkopi Sandstone at 4000 to 4800ft.  Threatened by road development, drought, global climate change.

17 Erigeron rhizomatus Rhizome Fleabane  NESL Group 2, Listed Threatened  Only known from McKinley, San Juan, & Catron counties, NM and Apache County, AZ. On the Navajo Nation in the Chuska Mountains.  Restricted to steep slopes above 7000ft. Restricted to clays derived from the Chinle and Baca Formations.  Threatened mostly by energy development, possibly global climate change.

18 1) Plants like wildlife are migrating. Plants are migrating northward and upward (elevation). For instance, Piñon Pine is contracting in NM and extending its range in the NW. 2) Mesa Verde Cactus – Important to the Navajo. Navajo reports say the decline in precipitation has impacted the ability of the cactus to reproduce and survive. Drought and subsequent insect outbreaks have decimated cactus near Shiprock. 3) Mesquite – On the Cocopah Reservation in AZ, mesquite is being pushed out by invasive saltcedar, a more drought-tolerant species. 4) In in NM, there was significant drought dieback that affected 3 ½ million acres of Piñon Pine and 2 million acres of Ponderosa.

19  Make use of traditional knowledge of adaptation to drought and new technologies  Need to educate tribal people on water cycle and role of vegetation in holding water and stopping erosion  Have workshops on determining productivity of family’s land and stocking rate and conservation practices to conserve water  Reduce number of dirt roads  Stop use of vehicles and ORVs to herd stock  Reduce Dependence on Fossil Fuels  Stop Desert Rock proposed coal burning plant  Student Activity: Read OilShale.pdfOilShale.pdf  Develop alternative energy and heat conservation for homes (http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/feature-articles/southwest- cities-carbon-footprint)http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/feature-articles/southwest- cities-carbon-footprint  Develop plans for more efficient cars/vehicles on reservation


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