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Chapter 18 Section 1 Interactions of Living Things

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1 Chapter 18 Section 1 Interactions of Living Things
Pages Section 1

2 Bell Ringer Describe Abiotic and Biotic factors in your journal.

3 The Environment Ecology
Study of the interactions among organisms and their environment. Ecologists Scientists who study environmental relationships Organize the environmental factors that influence organisms into 2 groups ABIOTIC BIOTIC

4 Comparing Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Non-living parts of the environment Examples: Water Light & Temperature Air Soil

5 Comparing Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Living or once-living organisms in the environment Examples: Levels or organization Population Communities Ecosystems Biomes The Biosphere

6 Video Time

7 Bell Ringer Describe the “biome” in which we live.
Must answer with at least 5 sentences. Be in depth and cover what is observed in this area.

8 Abiotic Factors 5 Factors: Water Light Temperature Air Soil

9 Abiotic Factors Water All organisms need water to survive
Organisms are made of 50%-95% water Respiration, photosynthesis, digestion, and other important life process can only occur with presence of water 95% of Earth’s surface water is found in oceans

10 Examples of Water Dale Hollow Lake Bayou-Gueydan, LA
Cumberland River & Lake Cumberland Pacific Ocean-Kauai, Hawaii Dale Hollow Lake Bayou-Gueydan, LA

11 Abiotic Factors 2. Light Availability of sun light is a major factor in determining where green plants and other photosynthetic organisms live Energy from Sun is changed into chemical energy Algae-lives near water surface Dense forest have very little photosynthetic plants, why?

12 Plant Examples The Garden of Eden-Kauai North Shore-Kauai
Kipu Ranch-Kauai -conifers

13 Abiotic Factors Temperature
Regional temperature also determines which plants and animals can live there Some areas of the world have fairly consistent temperature year round Other areas have season during which temperatures vary Arctic, Desert, Mid-Atlantic, Tropical, Arid, and Mild

14 Temperature Variations
Rain Forest-Brazil Mojave Desert-CA Arctic Plain-Antarctica Appalachian Mts-TN Tropical Island-FL Keys Great Plains-Kansas

15 Abiotic Factors Air Composed of a mixture of gases including Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide. Plants & Animals depend on the gases in air for respirations (breathe) All species are affected by weather Weather- 8km to 16 km (from surface) Ozone Layer-20km to 50km (from surface) Few organisms live at extreme air pressures

16 Abiotic Factors Soil Varies greatly from one environment to another
Soil Type-determined by amount of Sand, Silt, and Clay it contains Various soils contains different amounts of nutrients, minerals, and moisture Soil affects every organism in an environment!

17 Soil Top Soil-rich in nutrients and moisture (plant crops)
Red Clay-sub soil-very acidic (use as filler dirt) Bed Rock-mostly limestone/sandstone (paving stone)

18 Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors do not provide everything an organism needs for survival Organisms depend on other organisms for: Food Shelter Protection Reproduction

19 Biotic Factors Biotic Factors Include: Bacteria Protists Fungi Plants

20 Levels of Organization
Organism: one individual from a population Mallard Drake “GreenHead”

21 Levels of Organization
Population: all of the individual of one species that live in the same area at the same time.

22 Levels of Organization
Community: the populations of different species that interact in some way

23 Levels of Organization
Ecosystem: all of the communities in an area and the abiotic factors they interact with

24 Levels of Organization
Biome: large region with plants and animals well adapted to the soil and climate of the region

25 Levels of Organization
6. Biosphere: The level of biological organization that is made up of all the ecosystems on Earth

26 Biosphere Where Earth’s organisms live Can be found
11,000 m deep in the ocean 9,000 m high on the mountains 4.5 km high in atmosphere Includes top part of Earth’s crust, all the waters that covers the Earth’s surface, the surrounding atmosphere, and all biomes! Extremophiles

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