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Geological Variety in Colorado By: Lois. Our Journey  Manitou Cliff Dwellings  Sedimentary Layers  Cave of the Winds  Natural Cave Formations  Florissant.

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Presentation on theme: "Geological Variety in Colorado By: Lois. Our Journey  Manitou Cliff Dwellings  Sedimentary Layers  Cave of the Winds  Natural Cave Formations  Florissant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geological Variety in Colorado By: Lois

2 Our Journey  Manitou Cliff Dwellings  Sedimentary Layers  Cave of the Winds  Natural Cave Formations  Florissant Fossil Beds  Petrified Trees

3 And We’re Off! *First Stop* Manitou Cliff Dwellings Starting from Point E: 1.Headed North on I-25 (4.4 miles) 2.West on US-24 (5 miles) 3.Right on Sunshine Trail (0.2 Miles) 4.Arrived at Manitou Cliff Dwellings (Point B) Picture by Google Maps (www.googlemaps.com)

4 We’re Here! By: Lois E. (Manitou Cliff Dwelling Entrance)

5 By: Lois E. (Sedimentary Layers at Manitou Springs, Lois used for “Scale”) Sedimentary Rock Layers What you should know: ₪ Principal of Superposition o This states that because sedimentary rock is usually deposited horizontally, the layers get younger toward the top. o Therefore, I am standing in the oldest layers and the layers get progressively younger above my head ₪ Sediment can Originate From: o Weathering + erosion of preexisting rock o Precipitation from solution o This region was once under a shallow sea. Therefore, the retreating and rising of the water caused the layers to form and sediment to harden (www.caveofthewinds.com) ₪ Lithification o The “Hardening” of the sediment o Combination of compaction and cementation (Physical Geology)

6 ₪ According to www.spot.colorado.edu this region consists of limestone, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate and shalewww.spot.colorado.edu ₪ Chemical Sedimentary Rock o Can be caused by organisms such as those with seashells o The Limestone here in this area was formed by the compaction of layers and layers of shells from sea creatures once living in the sea that covered this region By: Lois E.(Sedimentary Rock Layers outside the Manitou Cliff Dwellings) By: Lois E. (Sedimentary Layers within the Cliff Dwellings)

7 Sedimentary Layers?? Who cares!?! By: Google Images (Picture of Sedimentary layers relating to time) ₪ Paleontologists, geologists and more that’s who! o Stratigraphy: The sub discipline of geology that uses interrelationships between rock or sediment to interpret the history of an area (Physical Geology) ₪ Sedimentary Layers can tell us about our Earth’s history o Ranging from the creatures that once roamed to geologic events that shaped our earth ₪ Fossils are commonly found in sedimentary layers o Including the layers found at the Manitou Cliff Dwelling site ₪ Index Fossils, when found, can help narrow down a layers relative age o By matching it to the brief period of time it existed in, geologists can make a generalization as to the time period a layer is from ₪ Relative Time/Age is one method used for dating sedimentary layers, fossils, geologic events etc. o The Standard Geologic Time scale is used worldwide o The photo at left shows a simple version of the scale correlating to sedimentary layers

8 Here We Go Again! *Second Stop* Cave of The Winds Starting from Point B: 1.South on Sunshine Trail (0.2 Miles) 2.West on US-24 (0.5 Miles) 3.Right on Cave of The Winds road (0.9 Miles) 4.Arrived at Cave of The Winds (Point C) Picture by Google Maps (www.googlemaps.com)

9 Whoa! That was Fast! By: Cave of the Winds Tour Guide (Copyrighted Cave Entrance Photo)

10 Cave Formations “Dripstone” These particular examples of dripstone are called Stalactites As groundwater slowly drips from cracks in the ceiling, the droplets leave tiny calcite deposits once the CO 2 in the water dissipates, which in turn creates these types of icicle-like formations as the calcite is left behind drop by drop In order for this to happen, the groundwater typically has to be rich in calcium and bicarbonate. o In the Manitou Springs area, which is where the caves are located, the natural springs are well known for being high in bicarbonate (www.pikes- peak.com)www.pikes- peak.com o The bicarbonate also dissolves calcium from the organic material in the limestone, so calcite does not only come from the groundwater By: Lois Eisenhauer (Stalactites in Cave of The Winds) By: Lois E. (Stalactites on ceiling of Cave of The Winds, Broken column on the right)

11 More Dripstone “Stalagmites” These formations called stalagmites are the result of those droplets from the stalactites falling to the cave floor When the droplets fall, they release more CO 2 and leave another small calcite deposit which forms this cone shaped speleothem on the floor (Physical Geology) Both stalactites and stalagmites can grow as slowly as ¼ inch every hundred years! However, the true rate varies depending on rain fall and water table levels of a region (www.nps.gov)www.nps.gov Because Cave of The Winds is high in elevation, groundwater is not the only contributor to formations. o According to the guide, as rainwater seeps through the stone, carbonic acid is created o The acid dissolves calcite out of the shells and bones from the sea life compacted in the limestone and leaves deposits as described earlier By: Lois E. (Stalagmites in Cave of The Winds)

12 By: Lois E. (Column in Cave of The Winds) By: Lois E. (The “Atlas” Column in Cave of The Winds; largest column in the cave) By: Lois E. (Column in Cave of The Winds) When Formations Meet! “Columns” Since the stalactites on the ceiling are growing downward and stalagmites are growing upward, sometimes they will meet and form columns Did you know?? Limestone, although compacted, is still porous Because of this, the column to the left is shinier than others from a hundred years of human hands touching it (For Good Luck) The oils in our skin gets absorbed into the porous limestone and gives it a slick appearance (Cave of The Winds guide)

13 On The Road Again! *Third + Final Stop* Florissant Fossil Beds Starting from Point C: 1.SW on Cave of the Winds Road (0.9 Miles) 2.West on US-24 (21.1 Miles) 3.Left at Twin Rocks Rd (5.8 Miles) 4.Right at CO Rd 1 (2.0 Miles) 5.Arrive at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument (Point D) Picture by Google Maps (www.googlemaps.com)

14 PHEW! We Made It… By: Lois E. (Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Entrance)

15 By: Lois E. (Petrified Redwood Stumps) By: Amadio E. (Same as Above, but with Lois E. for Scale) It’s a Tree! It’s a Rock! Its… “Petrified Wood” ≈The Florissant area is 15 miles SW of what used to be the Guffey Volcanic Complex (National Park Brochure) This was during the Eocene Epoch ≈Volcanic eruptions mixed with ash, water and snow creating massive mudflows (Park Ranger) These volcanic mudflows can move downslope up to 150mph and carry large debris like boulders or car-sized objects (National Park Brochure) ≈The mud and debris covered the redwood trees that existed here during the Eocene Epoch (National Park Brochure) Once trapped in the mud, those parts of the trees became petrified over time

16 So it’s a Rock now? ≈Indeed! And the mineral silica is responsible! ≈Silica is found in the groundwater and also within the mudflow mixture ≈The wood of some trees (Like these redwoods) is porous enough to allow silica to fill in or replace it’s fibers ≈Once this happens, the end result is a fossilized tree made of rock and is called petrified wood * Note: All info on this slide provided by the Park Ranger on duty By: Lois E. (Same as photo on right, using Amadio Eisenhauer for scale) By: Lois E. (Petrified Redwood Stump at Florissant Fossil Beds)

17 Homeward Bound *Return Trip Home* Florissant Fossil Beds Starting from Point D: 1.NW on Teller County Rd 1 (5.9 Miles) 2.Right on Twin Rocks Rd (5.8 Miles) 3.East on US-24 (26.4 Miles) 4.I-25 South (2.1 Miles) 5.Arrive at Home in Colorado Springs (Point E) Picture by Google Maps (www.googlemaps.com)

18 CONCLUSION Geological Variety in Colorado Includes:  Numerous Sites of visible Sedimentary Layers that Taught us:  How geological events can be dated  Demonstration of Principal of Superposition  Caves with Text-Book Examples of Natural Formations:  Stalactites  Stalagmites  Columns  Plentiful Fossil Examples such as Large Petrified trees:  The process responsible to petrify  Geologic events that made this possible

19 Works Cited "How Stalactites and Stalagmites Form." NPS.gov. National Park Service, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.. Luiszer, Fredrick G. "GENESIS OF CAVE OF THE WINDS, MANITOU SPRINGS, CO." Spot.colorado.edu. N.p., 1997. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.. "More Adventure. Inside & Out." Cave of the Winds. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.. “Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument: Below Your Boots” National park Service Brochure. "Pikes Peak Country Attractions." Manitou Springs Colorado Pikes Peak Region. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2012.. Plummer, Charles C., Lisa Hammersley, and Diane H. Carlson. Physical Geology. 13th ed. Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.


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