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Trees. Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua Family: Hamamelidaceae “Hamlet loved sweetgum.” Alternate phylotaxy Star-shaped leaves Serrate leaves Prickly.

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Presentation on theme: "Trees. Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua Family: Hamamelidaceae “Hamlet loved sweetgum.” Alternate phylotaxy Star-shaped leaves Serrate leaves Prickly."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trees


3 Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua Family: Hamamelidaceae “Hamlet loved sweetgum.” Alternate phylotaxy Star-shaped leaves Serrate leaves Prickly fruit that drops all year Flat twig things Short, fat twigs Shiny buds Ohio is its northern limit Shade intolerant Low-land tree/flood plains Useful wood


5 Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana Family: Pinaceae “My cat,Juniper, is from Virginia.” Not actually a cedar Extremely decay resistant Aromatic wood Fleshy pine cones Has scales and awns Babies have awns Adults have scales Characteristic species of old fields Likes basic soils Grows on limestone Shade intolerant Used for pencils and fence posts


7 Callery Pear Pyrus calleryana Family: Rosaceae “Pyrus Pears, color your nana rosaceae.” Dense, white flowers, Bright red leaves in fall Bad branch structure Designed not to reproduce, but failed Grafted Invasive Used for ornamental


9 Catalpa Catalpa speciosa Family: Bignoniaceae “Catalpa, is that a speciosa? That’s big noniaceae!” Indian cigars (beans) Native to Texas Planted by farmland Shade intolerant ornamental


11 Cucumber Magnolia Magnolia acuminata Family: Magnoliaceae “accumulate the cucumbers” Alternate leaves Leaves look tropical 75-80ft tall Entire leaf margins Smaller leaves Characteristic species of mesophytic forest Southern Ohio is northern limit Intermediate to shade tolerant


13 Umbrella Magnolia Magnolia tripetala Family: Magnoliaceae “Trippin’ on the umbrella shrooms.” Leaves look tropical Large leaves Rounded leaf base 30-40ft max Entire leaves Characteristic species of mesophytic forest Very shade tolerant


15 Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba Family: Ginkgoaceae Ancient tree Fan-shaped leaves Fruit stinks Male and female Urban environment Short shoot, long shoot


17 Pine Pinus sp. Family: Pinaceae Needles come in fascicles (bundles) Poor, sandy, dry soils Pretty shade tolerant Used for paper


19 Redbud Cercis canadensis Family: Fabaceae “Sir, is the heart of Canada dense? Fab, I see.” Cordate leaf (heart) Entire margins Revolute (rolls in) Same family as peas 10-30 ft Purple spring flowers grow strait from stem Typically gnarled Understory plant in eastern deciduous forest Grows in waste places Shade tolerant ornamental


21 Yew Taxus sp. Family: Taxaceae Can be 20 ft tall Little red arils Extremely shade tolerant Popular ornamental


23 Honey locust Gleditsia triacanthos Family: Fabaceae “Honey is all the glitz. Try to can those! Fab, I see.” Alternate leaves Big bean pods Ornamental type has no thorns Terrible thorns Leaves are twice pinnately compound Early successional plant Extremely shade tolerant


25 Black Walnut Juglans nigra Family: Juglandaceae “Black monkeys live in the nigra jungle! It’s jug land, see?” Loses leaves early Compound pinnately compound leaves Strong smelling fruit Monkey face leaf scars The rachis is usually on the ground Stout twigs Can be huge Mesophytic coves Shade tolerant Ornamental Valuable wood


27 Spruce Picea sp. Family: Pinaceae Woody pegs Angled needles Hurts Found in Boreal forest Generally shade tolerant ornamental


29 Sassafras Sassafras albidum Family: Lauraceae “Sassafras, I’ll be dumb.” About 10 ft. tall Have egg, mitten, and lobed shaped leaves Cinnamon colored bark Crawl up through canopy Dry, sandy slopes Found with pines Southern Thrives after fire


31 Buckeye Aesculus sp. Family: Hippocastanaceae “Buck’s asses and skulls are smaller than hippos.” Ohio: Prickly fruit Smells like skunk Palmately compound leaves stout twigs Northern, wooded areas yellow: Smooth fruit Palmately compound leaves Southern Mesic


33 Osage-orange Maclura pomifera Moraceae “Osage-orange has massive pompoms and I want more!” Alternate leaves In the same family as mulberry Shiny, simple leaf Ovate, entire leaves Native to Texas & Arkansas Planted to fence in cattle because it has thorns Found in waste area Shade intolerant Great wood Has male and female parts


35 Poison Ivy Toxicodendron (Rhus) radicans Anacardiaceae “Poison ivy is a toxic dendron. It’s so radical an anacardiaceae wouldn’t touch it!” Has fruits dispersed by birds 3 leaves beware Climbs Crawls on wet ground Understory Shade tolerant Alternate


37 American Beech Fagus grandifolia Fagaceae “American beech has grand foliage.” Veins lead to a point Parallel veins Smooth leaf surface paper-like leaf Smooth bark Branches come off the trunk Often has hollows Pointy, long buds A bit serrate Very shade tolerant Does well in coves Not typically in a stand


39 American Elm Ulmus americana Ulmaceae Doubly serrate Parallel veination Gets a disease that kills it Simple leaf Oblique based leaves Large Shaped like a feather duster Found in disturbed areas


41 Slippery Elm Ulmus rubra Ulmaceae Likes to have its roots in water In ditches Has a mucilage layer that is soothing for sore throats Doubly serrate Parallel veination Gets a disease that kills it Simple leaf Oblique based leaves Large Shaped like a feather duster


43 Chinquapin Oak Quercus muehlenbergii Fagaceae In white oak group Alternate Likes basic soils derived from limestone Indented margins Simple leaves Gray-plated bark No hairs Found in Eastern deciduous forest and savannas Small acorns that deer love Used for floors Does well with fire


45 Pawpaw Asimina triloba Annonaceae “Asimo’s paws are trilobed. He stays anonymous.” Tropical looking Naked, flexible buds on the end Makes a fruit Smells like green peppers In a tropical family Makes clones, but needs a tree outside the clones to mate with in order to produce fruit Likes wet areas Understory tree Ohio’s native fruit


47 Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Aceraceae Shade tolerant Entire leaf margins Lobed The bud is pointy and chocolate brown Smooth bark Canadian flag Found in cove forest Shady areas Prominent in herb layer “taking over” Maple syrup


49 Yellow (tulip) Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera Magnoliaceae “Hey, Larry, tulips are related to magnolias.” White between bark lines Common in cove forests Very tall, strait No lower branches Spoon-shaped buds Loves to take over fields Good wood, but not for fancy things


51 Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida Cornaceae “Dogwood comes from Florida where the corn grows.” Opposite phyllotaxy Simple, entire leaves Veins bend toward the tip Dogwood anthracnose killed most of them Alligator bark Branches sweep up Tear the leaf and white cotton stuff comes out Forest understory Waste places Shade tolerant ornamental


53 American holly Ilex opaca Aquifoliaceae “For Christmas I got Lex, aqua alpaca gloves.” Alternate leaves White wood Extremely shade tolerant Ornamental Found in bad, dry, sandy soils Dispersed by berries On a ridge short


55 Ash sp. Fraxinus sp. Oleaceae “When you ax an ash tree that’s all you see.” Opposite phyllotaxy Pinnately compound Bark has diamond shapes Several types: White ash found on land Green ash found in water Used ornamentally Grafted ornamentally White ash used for baseball bats Mixed cove forests Intermediate to shade tolerant


57 Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis Juglandaceae “Bitternuts smell like caryon. Of course it forms in the jungle.” Alternate phyllotaxy 7-9 leaflets Sulfur yellow, valvate buds Has a terminal leaflet with no stalk on it Cove species Intermediate to shade tolerant Not useful wood Pecans are in the same family


59 Black Locust Robinia pseudo-acacia Fabaceae Alternate leaves Pinnately compound Closely related to honey locust Has thorns paired at leaf scars Egg-shaped leaves Shade intolerant Found along edges Early successional species Nitrogen fixer Bean fruits Old fields Die young 50-70 yrs old Weedy Decay resistant wood Fence posts Grey bark with ridges Leaves turn brown from a bug


61 Box Elder Acer negundo Aceraceae Opposite leaves Compound leaf 3 leaflets Gently serrate Green stems Samaras Weedy plant Waste places Riparian zones Wind dispersal Short-lived Grows fast R-selected Shade intolerant Looks like poison ivy


63 Black Cherry Prunus serotina Rosaceae “The cherries shout, ‘Prune us, Serotina.’The cherries match the roses.” Alternate leaves Charcoal bark Burnt potato chips Simple leaves Reddish-brown hairs on midrib Reddish fall color Waste places Dispersal by birds Used for cabinets and gun stocks—fancy things Intermediate to shade tolerant Likes gaps


65 Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Ulmaceae 2-ranked leaves Oblique margins Serrate Warty bark Tough- doesn’t get diseases Berries Bird dispersal Looks like an elm Has nipple galls Indicator of limestone soils Shade intolerant to intermediate edges


67 Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa Fagaceae Variable leaf shape Crenate at top Lobed below Corky twigs– fire resistant Fast growning Lives long Likes limestone soils Savanna tree Shade tolerant


69 Red oak Qeurcus rubra Fagaceae Red oak group Has tricombs Fast growth Shallow lobes Cove forest Acorns Used for floors and cabinets Needs fire ornamental


71 White oak Quercus alba Fagaceae Very bumpy and warty acorns Life forever White oak group Deeply lobed No tricombs Lighter Grey-ish bark Loose bark Good for bats Alternate Simple leaves Red in fall


73 Grape Vitis sp. Vitaceae Climbs and crawls Not parasitic because doesn’t penetrate “support” parasite Not a problem unless it pulls down a tree Teeth on leaves Sort of lobed Variable looking Climbs into canopy All European vines are grafted on American vines


75 Hop hornbeam Ostrya virginiana Betulaceae Closely related to carpinus Green bud with brown stripes Doubly serrate Leaf surface a little fuzzy Peely bark Looks like cat scratching Grows on ridge tops Drier areas


77 Ironwood/Musclewood Carpinus caroliniana Betulaceae Simple leaf Doubly serrate Smooth to glossy Buds are brown with white speckles Ridged/furrowed wood Smooth bark Veins don’t all end in a tooth like beech Understory tree found along waterways Cove forest


79 Sycamore Platanus occidentalis Platanaceae Simple leaves White bark Grows very fast Had buds under the leaves Dispersed by little flying and floating seeds in balls Grown for rough lumber Toilet paper Fast decaying Good habitat for animals


81 Basswood Tilia sp. Tiliaceae Simple leaves Cordate Buds look like a piggy back Oblique based leaves Moist cove forest with cucumber magnolia Distinct fruit


83 Chestnut Castaneae sp. Fagaceae Alternate Leaf is similar to chinquapin oak Killed by fungus that still lives on oaks Very fast growing Grew in pure stands Appalachian coves and ridges Decay resistant Beautiful wood


85 Serviceberry Amelanchier sp. Rosaceae Alternate leaves Flowers in spring Named because people used to always bury the dead in the spring when the soil thawed, which was when the serviceberry bloomed. Simple leaves w/ small teeth Look like cherry leaves White flowers Makes a little apple/pon? Sandy ridge tops Understory Shade tolerant Acidic soils Pine-oak habitat Ornamental Smooth bark with lines Long buds


87 Eastern white pine Pinus strobus Pinaceae 5 needles in fascicle Branches come out in whirls Can count each whirl to estimate the age Native Grow fast Can get huge Europeans loved them because they were great for ship masts Which made North America very desirable The person who owned the wood was powerful


89 Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Nyssaceae Alternate waxy leaves Branches stick strait out Bark looks like dogwood Its like a cartoon tree with a straight trunk with simple leaves Acidic soils Dry, sandy ridges Both understory and canopy Occasional tree


91 Hawthorn Crataegus sp. Rosaceae Horrible thorns Acer-like foliage Variable leaves Serrate margins Shiny Lots of little twigs Occasional tree Ornamental Found along streams or on a hillside, but not in thickets


93 Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis Pinaceae Dying from a pathogen, which is disastrous because it creates many microsystems Beneath it, the soil is more acidic from the needles Creates shade Found where the cool, moist, air drains off an Appalachian mountain Tiny, papery cones Short, 2-ranked needles 2 white lines on back of needles Planted ornamentally next to buildings Huge tree


95 River Birch Betula nigra Betulaceae Simple, alternate leaves Hairs on underside Peely, paper bark Droopy branches Native to Ohio Flood plains and river banks Ornamental Shade intolerant


97 Yellowwood Cladastris kentuckea Fabaceae Alternate Pinnately compound The twigs connects smoothly to the rachis Cup on the leaf covers the bud Native Grows along the limestone cliffs of KY rivers Very occasional ornamental


99 Fir Abies sp. Pinaceae Flat needles Base of needles looks like suction cups Smells like orange Boreal forest


101 Red maple Acer rubrum Aceraceae Serrate margins Three lobes Large range Successional in Appalachia Samara fruit Old Popular ornamental Bad structure like callery pear


103 Black oak Quercus velutina Fagaceae Scaley caps on acorns Very small acorns Scales stick up Leaf similar to red oak, but fuzzy Blocky bark Fuzzy leaves Really orange below the surface Found in drier sites than red oak Doesn’t prune off its lower branches Likes sandy, acidic soils Leaves are deeply lobed at top


105 Multiflora rose Rosa multiflora Rosaceae Invasive Problem in Dayton Origin is unknown Has rose hips (fruit) Red berry thing Dispersed by birds Makes thickets Has terrible thorns Spray it to kill it


107 Blackberry/ Raspberry Rubus sp. Rosaceae Glaucous---whitened or waxy on the underside and stem Shrub Thorny Grows in marginal habitats, old fields, forest Part of old-field succession Swoops to the ground and grows a new plant Compound leaves 3-5 leaflets Some put shoots underground


109 Amur Honeysuckle Lonicera maackii Caprifoliaceae Opposite, egg-shaped leaves Berries in groups of fours Bird dispersed Robins and starlings Simple leaves Fast growing Monoculture Suppresses natives Can suppress the growth of canopy trees Allelopathic


111 Autumn Olive Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeagnaceae Looks like the underside was spray-painted silver From Russia Shrub Bird dispersed Fast growing Found in open areas Farms or farm reclaimed sites


113 Blue Ash Fraxinus quadrangulata Oleaceae Opposite leaves Pinnately compound Stems are angled (4) Not diamond bark Doesn’t compete well Has samaras– wind dispersed Intermediate shade tolerance Most resilient to EAB Found in dry, limestone savanna settings People used to make blue dye from the bark


115 Sumac Rhus sp. Anacardiaceae Alternate leaves Pinnately compound Grows in clumps Weird fruiting structure (looks like coral) Found in open-disturbed habitats Birds and butterflies love it Animal dispersal Clonal growth Stout twigs


117 Kentucky Coffeetree Gymnocladus dioica Fabaceae Doubly pinnately compound Flaky bark with orange color Occasional tree Found in woodlots, habitat margins Not useful wood Male and female trees Dispersed by ground sloths Doesn’t grow in stands Limestone soils

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