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Presentation on theme: "Trees."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trees


3 Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua Short, fat twigs
Family: Hamamelidaceae Shiny buds “Hamlet loved sweetgum.” Ohio is its northern limit Alternate phylotaxy Shade intolerant Star-shaped leaves Low-land tree/flood plains Serrate leaves Useful wood Prickly fruit that drops all year Flat twig things


5 Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana Family: Pinaceae
Babies have awns Family: Pinaceae Adults have scales Characteristic species of old fields “My cat,Juniper, is from Virginia.” Likes basic soils Not actually a cedar Grows on limestone Extremely decay resistant Shade intolerant Aromatic wood Used for pencils and fence posts Fleshy pine cones Has scales and awns


7 Callery Pear Pyrus calleryana Grafted Family: Rosaceae Invasive
“Pyrus Pears, color your nana rosaceae.” Used for ornamental Dense, white flowers, Bright red leaves in fall Bad branch structure Designed not to reproduce, but failed


9 Catalpa Catalpa speciosa Family: Bignoniaceae
“Catalpa, is that a speciosa? That’s big noniaceae!” Indian cigars (beans) Native to Texas Planted by farmland Shade intolerant ornamental


11 Cucumber Magnolia Magnolia acuminata Family: Magnoliaceae
“accumulate the cucumbers” Alternate leaves Leaves look tropical 75-80ft tall Entire leaf margins Smaller leaves Characteristic species of mesophytic forest Southern Ohio is northern limit Intermediate to shade tolerant


13 Umbrella Magnolia Magnolia tripetala Family: Magnoliaceae
“Trippin’ on the umbrella shrooms.” Leaves look tropical Large leaves Rounded leaf base 30-40ft max Entire leaves Characteristic species of mesophytic forest Very shade tolerant


15 Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba Family: Ginkgoaceae Ancient tree
Fan-shaped leaves Fruit stinks Male and female Urban environment Short shoot, long shoot


17 Pine Pinus sp. Family: Pinaceae Needles come in fascicles (bundles)
Poor, sandy, dry soils Pretty shade tolerant Used for paper


19 Redbud Cercis canadensis Purple spring flowers grow strait from stem
Family: Fabaceae Typically gnarled “Sir, is the heart of Canada dense? Fab, I see.” Understory plant in eastern deciduous forest Cordate leaf (heart) Grows in waste places Entire margins Shade tolerant Revolute (rolls in) ornamental Same family as peas 10-30 ft


21 Yew Taxus sp. Family: Taxaceae Can be 20 ft tall Little red arils
Extremely shade tolerant Popular ornamental


23 Honey locust Gleditsia triacanthos Family: Fabaceae
“Honey is all the glitz. Try to can those! Fab, I see.” Alternate leaves Big bean pods Ornamental type has no thorns Terrible thorns Leaves are twice pinnately compound Early successional plant Extremely shade tolerant


25 Black Walnut Juglans nigra The rachis is usually on the ground
Family: Juglandaceae Stout twigs “Black monkeys live in the nigra jungle! It’s jug land, see?” Can be huge Mesophytic coves Loses leaves early Shade tolerant Compound pinnately compound leaves Ornamental Valuable wood Strong smelling fruit Monkey face leaf scars


27 Spruce Picea sp. Family: Pinaceae Woody pegs Angled needles Hurts
Found in Boreal forest Generally shade tolerant ornamental


29 Sassafras Sassafras albidum Family: Lauraceae
“Sassafras, I’ll be dumb.” About 10 ft. tall Have egg, mitten, and lobed shaped leaves Cinnamon colored bark Crawl up through canopy Dry, sandy slopes Found with pines Southern Thrives after fire


31 Buckeye Aesculus sp. Family: Hippocastanaceae yellow:
Northern, wooded areas Family: Hippocastanaceae yellow: Smooth fruit “Buck’s asses and skulls are smaller than hippos.” Southern Ohio: Mesic Prickly fruit Smells like skunk Palmately compound leaves stout twigs


33 Osage-orange Maclura pomifera Native to Texas & Arkansas Moraceae
Planted to fence in cattle because it has thorns “Osage-orange has massive pompoms and I want more!” Found in waste area Alternate leaves Shade intolerant In the same family as mulberry Great wood Has male and female parts Shiny, simple leaf Ovate, entire leaves


35 Poison Ivy Toxicodendron (Rhus) radicans Crawls on wet ground
Understory Anacardiaceae Shade tolerant “Poison ivy is a toxic dendron. It’s so radical an anacardiaceae wouldn’t touch it!” Alternate Has fruits dispersed by birds 3 leaves beware Climbs


37 American Beech Fagus grandifolia Branches come off the trunk Fagaceae
Often has hollows “American beech has grand foliage.” Pointy, long buds A bit serrate Veins lead to a point Very shade tolerant Parallel veins Does well in coves Smooth leaf surface Not typically in a stand paper-like leaf Smooth bark


39 American Elm Ulmus americana Found in disturbed areas Ulmaceae
Doubly serrate Parallel veination Gets a disease that kills it Simple leaf Oblique based leaves Large Shaped like a feather duster


41 Slippery Elm Ulmus rubra Simple leaf Ulmaceae Oblique based leaves
Likes to have its roots in water Large Shaped like a feather duster In ditches Has a mucilage layer that is soothing for sore throats Doubly serrate Parallel veination Gets a disease that kills it


43 Chinquapin Oak Quercus muehlenbergii No hairs Fagaceae
Found in Eastern deciduous forest and savannas In white oak group Small acorns that deer love Alternate Used for floors Likes basic soils derived from limestone Does well with fire Indented margins Simple leaves Gray-plated bark


45 Pawpaw Asimina triloba In a tropical family Annonaceae
Makes clones, but needs a tree outside the clones to mate with in order to produce fruit “Asimo’s paws are trilobed. He stays anonymous.” Tropical looking Likes wet areas Naked, flexible buds on the end Understory tree Ohio’s native fruit Makes a fruit Smells like green peppers


47 Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Found in cove forest Aceraceae Shady areas
Shade tolerant Prominent in herb layer Entire leaf margins “taking over” Lobed Maple syrup The bud is pointy and chocolate brown Smooth bark Canadian flag


49 Yellow (tulip) Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera Magnoliaceae
“Hey, Larry, tulips are related to magnolias.” White between bark lines Common in cove forests Very tall, strait No lower branches Spoon-shaped buds Loves to take over fields Good wood, but not for fancy things


51 Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida Alligator bark Cornaceae
Branches sweep up “Dogwood comes from Florida where the corn grows.” Tear the leaf and white cotton stuff comes out Forest understory Opposite phyllotaxy Waste places Simple, entire leaves Shade tolerant Veins bend toward the tip ornamental Dogwood anthracnose killed most of them


53 American holly Ilex opaca Dispersed by berries Aquifoliaceae
On a ridge “For Christmas I got Lex, aqua alpaca gloves.” short Alternate leaves White wood Extremely shade tolerant Ornamental Found in bad, dry, sandy soils


55 Ash sp. Fraxinus sp. Used ornamentally Oleaceae Grafted ornamentally
“When you ax an ash tree that’s all you see.” White ash used for baseball bats Opposite phyllotaxy Mixed cove forests Pinnately compound Intermediate to shade tolerant Bark has diamond shapes Several types: White ash found on land Green ash found in water


57 Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis Cove species Juglandaceae
Intermediate to shade tolerant “Bitternuts smell like caryon. Of course it forms in the jungle.” Not useful wood Pecans are in the same family Alternate phyllotaxy 7-9 leaflets Sulfur yellow, valvate buds Has a terminal leaflet with no stalk on it


59 Black Locust Robinia pseudo-acacia Nitrogen fixer Fabaceae Bean fruits
Alternate leaves Old fields Pinnately compound Die young yrs old Closely related to honey locust Weedy Has thorns paired at leaf scars Decay resistant wood Egg-shaped leaves Fence posts Shade intolerant Grey bark with ridges Found along edges Leaves turn brown from a bug Early successional species


61 Box Elder Acer negundo Waste places Aceraceae Riparian zones
Opposite leaves Wind dispersal Compound leaf Short-lived 3 leaflets Grows fast Gently serrate R-selected Green stems Shade intolerant Samaras Looks like poison ivy Weedy plant


63 Black Cherry Reddish-brown hairs on midrib Prunus serotina Rosaceae
Reddish fall color “The cherries shout, ‘Prune us, Serotina.’The cherries match the roses.” Waste places Dispersal by birds Used for cabinets and gun stocks—fancy things Alternate leaves Charcoal bark Intermediate to shade tolerant Burnt potato chips Simple leaves Likes gaps


65 Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Looks like an elm Ulmaceae
Has nipple galls 2-ranked leaves Indicator of limestone soils Oblique margins Shade intolerant to intermediate Serrate edges Warty bark Tough- doesn’t get diseases Berries Bird dispersal


67 Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa Savanna tree Fagaceae Shade tolerant
Variable leaf shape Crenate at top Lobed below Corky twigs– fire resistant Fast growning Lives long Likes limestone soils


69 Red oak Qeurcus rubra Needs fire Fagaceae ornamental Red oak group
Has tricombs Fast growth Shallow lobes Cove forest Acorns Used for floors and cabinets


71 White oak Quercus alba Loose bark Fagaceae Very bumpy and warty acorns
Good for bats Very bumpy and warty acorns Alternate Simple leaves Life forever Red in fall White oak group Deeply lobed No tricombs Lighter Grey-ish bark


73 Grape Vitis sp. Variable looking Vitaceae Climbs into canopy
Climbs and crawls All European vines are grafted on American vines Not parasitic because doesn’t penetrate “support” parasite Not a problem unless it pulls down a tree Teeth on leaves Sort of lobed


75 Hop hornbeam Ostrya virginiana Grows on ridge tops Betulaceae
Drier areas Closely related to carpinus Green bud with brown stripes Doubly serrate Leaf surface a little fuzzy Peely bark Looks like cat scratching


77 Ironwood/Musclewood Carpinus caroliniana
Veins don’t all end in a tooth like beech Betulaceae Understory tree found along waterways Simple leaf Doubly serrate Cove forest Smooth to glossy Buds are brown with white speckles Ridged/furrowed wood Smooth bark


79 Sycamore Platanus occidentalis Platanaceae Fast decaying Simple leaves
Toilet paper Platanaceae Fast decaying Simple leaves Good habitat for animals White bark Grows very fast Had buds under the leaves Dispersed by little flying and floating seeds in balls Grown for rough lumber


81 Basswood Tilia sp. Tiliaceae Simple leaves Cordate
Buds look like a piggy back Oblique based leaves Moist cove forest with cucumber magnolia Distinct fruit


83 Chestnut Castaneae sp. Appalachian coves and ridges Fagaceae
Decay resistant Alternate Beautiful wood Leaf is similar to chinquapin oak Killed by fungus that still lives on oaks Very fast growing Grew in pure stands


85 Serviceberry Amelanchier sp. White flowers Rosaceae
Makes a little apple/pon? Alternate leaves Sandy ridge tops Flowers in spring Understory Named because people used to always bury the dead in the spring when the soil thawed, which was when the serviceberry bloomed. Shade tolerant Acidic soils Pine-oak habitat Ornamental Simple leaves w/ small teeth Smooth bark with lines Look like cherry leaves Long buds


87 Eastern white pine Pinus strobus
Europeans loved them because they were great for ship masts Pinaceae 5 needles in fascicle Which made North America very desirable Branches come out in whirls Can count each whirl to estimate the age The person who owned the wood was powerful Native Grow fast Can get huge


89 Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Dry, sandy ridges Nyssaceae
Both understory and canopy Alternate waxy leaves Occasional tree Branches stick strait out Bark looks like dogwood Its like a cartoon tree with a straight trunk with simple leaves Acidic soils


91 Hawthorn Crataegus sp. Ornamental Rosaceae
Found along streams or on a hillside, but not in thickets Horrible thorns Acer-like foliage Variable leaves Serrate margins Shiny Lots of little twigs Occasional tree


93 Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis
Found where the cool, moist, air drains off an Appalachian mountain Pinaceae Tiny, papery cones Dying from a pathogen, which is disastrous because it creates many microsystems Short, 2-ranked needles 2 white lines on back of needles Beneath it, the soil is more acidic from the needles Planted ornamentally next to buildings Creates shade Huge tree


95 River Birch Betula nigra Shade intolerant Betulaceae
Simple, alternate leaves Hairs on underside Peely, paper bark Droopy branches Native to Ohio Flood plains and river banks Ornamental


97 Yellowwood Cladastris kentuckea Fabaceae Alternate Pinnately compound
The twigs connects smoothly to the rachis Cup on the leaf covers the bud Native Grows along the limestone cliffs of KY rivers Very occasional ornamental


99 Fir Abies sp. Pinaceae Flat needles
Base of needles looks like suction cups Smells like orange Boreal forest


101 Red maple Acer rubrum Bad structure like callery pear Aceraceae
Serrate margins Three lobes Large range Successional in Appalachia Samara fruit Old Popular ornamental


103 Black oak Quercus velutina Really orange below the surface Fagaceae
Found in drier sites than red oak Scaley caps on acorns Very small acorns Doesn’t prune off its lower branches Scales stick up Leaf similar to red oak, but fuzzy Likes sandy, acidic soils Leaves are deeply lobed at top Blocky bark Fuzzy leaves


105 Multiflora rose Rosa multiflora Has terrible thorns Rosaceae
Spray it to kill it Invasive Problem in Dayton Origin is unknown Has rose hips (fruit) Red berry thing Dispersed by birds Makes thickets


107 Blackberry/ Raspberry
Rubus sp. Swoops to the ground and grows a new plant Rosaceae Compound leaves Glaucous---whitened or waxy on the underside and stem 3-5 leaflets Some put shoots underground Shrub Thorny Grows in marginal habitats, old fields, forest Part of old-field succession


109 Amur Honeysuckle Lonicera maackii Suppresses natives Caprifoliaceae
Can suppress the growth of canopy trees Opposite, egg-shaped leaves Allelopathic Berries in groups of fours Bird dispersed Robins and starlings Simple leaves Fast growing Monoculture


111 Autumn Olive Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeagnaceae
Looks like the underside was spray-painted silver From Russia Shrub Bird dispersed Fast growing Found in open areas Farms or farm reclaimed sites


113 Blue Ash Fraxinus quadrangulata Most resilient to EAB Oleaceae
Found in dry, limestone savanna settings Opposite leaves People used to make blue dye from the bark Pinnately compound Stems are angled (4) Not diamond bark Doesn’t compete well Has samaras– wind dispersed Intermediate shade tolerance


115 Sumac Rhus sp. Birds and butterflies love it Anacardiaceae
Animal dispersal Alternate leaves Clonal growth Pinnately compound Stout twigs Grows in clumps Weird fruiting structure (looks like coral) Found in open-disturbed habitats


117 Kentucky Coffeetree Gymnocladus dioica Dispersed by ground sloths
Fabaceae Doesn’t grow in stands Doubly pinnately compound Limestone soils Flaky bark with orange color Occasional tree Found in woodlots, habitat margins Not useful wood Male and female trees

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