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UNIT 6 PROCESS 2 ACTIONS IN SEQUENCE ( أعمال في السلسلةِ ) Section 1 Preceding (before السَابِقة ) Simultaneous(at the same time المتابعة ) Following (after.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 6 PROCESS 2 ACTIONS IN SEQUENCE ( أعمال في السلسلةِ ) Section 1 Preceding (before السَابِقة ) Simultaneous(at the same time المتابعة ) Following (after."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 6 PROCESS 2 ACTIONS IN SEQUENCE ( أعمال في السلسلةِ ) Section 1 Preceding (before السَابِقة ) Simultaneous(at the same time المتابعة ) Following (after الآنية ) Section 1 Preceding (before السَابِقة ) Simultaneous(at the same time المتابعة ) Following (after الآنية )

2  Before (preceding) قبل ذلك Before the sun appears over the horizon( يَظْهرُ على الأفقِ ) the sky begins to lighten( يضيىء ).  As (simultaneous / same time) ك كما As the sun appears over the horizon light increases ( يزيد ).  After (following) بعد After the sun appears over the horizon sun climbs up ( يرتفع ) the sky.  When (approximately at the same time or soon after) عندما When the sun rises, the day begins.  Until (up to the event mentioned) إلى الحدثِ ذَكرَ ( حتى ) The day continues until the sun sets.  Before (preceding) قبل ذلك Before the sun appears over the horizon( يَظْهرُ على الأفقِ ) the sky begins to lighten( يضيىء ).  As (simultaneous / same time) ك كما As the sun appears over the horizon light increases ( يزيد ).  After (following) بعد After the sun appears over the horizon sun climbs up ( يرتفع ) the sky.  When (approximately at the same time or soon after) عندما When the sun rises, the day begins.  Until (up to the event mentioned) إلى الحدثِ ذَكرَ ( حتى ) The day continues until the sun sets.

3  Each sentence contains two events, X and Y. Read out the sentences which means:  Note: X stands for 1 st event, Y stands for 2 nd event. a)X occurs ( يَحْدثُ ) at the same time as Y. (simultaneously with Y) As b)X occurs approximately at the same time as or soon after Y (almost simultaneously with Y) When c)X precedes Y. (X occurs before Y) Before d)X follows Y. (X occurs after Y) After e)Y is at the end of X (X continues up to Y) Until  Each sentence contains two events, X and Y. Read out the sentences which means:  Note: X stands for 1 st event, Y stands for 2 nd event. a)X occurs ( يَحْدثُ ) at the same time as Y. (simultaneously with Y) As b)X occurs approximately at the same time as or soon after Y (almost simultaneously with Y) When c)X precedes Y. (X occurs before Y) Before d)X follows Y. (X occurs after Y) After e)Y is at the end of X (X continues up to Y) Until

4  Now complete these sentences. f) After the sun rises, air temperature rises. g) When the sun reaches the highest point in the sky, it begins to descend.( يَبْدأُ للنُزُول ) h) After the sun descends, the air temperature falls. i) Before the sun sets, it approaches( يَقتربُ ) the horizon. j) After the sun sets, the sky becomes completely dark. ( الظلام ) k) As the sun sets, the day ends. l) The night begins after the sun sets. m) The night continues( لليل يَستمرُّ ) until the sun rises.

5  Number these events in the order in which they occur when water is heated. Give simultaneous actions the same number. a)The water becomes hot. (3) b)The gas is lit. (2) (simultaneous with 1) c)Bubbles appear. (4) d)Steam appears. (8) (simultaneous with 7) e)The gas is turned on. (1) f)Bubbles burst. (6) g)Bubbles rise to the surface. (5) h)The water evaporates. (7)

6  Complete these sentences. i) As the water evaporates, steam appears. j) As soon as the bubbles burst, the water evaporates. k) When the bubbles rise to the surface, they burst. l) As soon as the gas is turned on, it is lit. m) Before the gas is lit, it is turned on. n) After the water becomes hot, bubbles appear. o) As soon as the bubbles appear, they rise to the surface.

7  Number these events in the order in which they occur. Give simultaneous actions the same number. a)The water ceases boiling. (5) b)The flame is extinguished. (4) c)The water starts to boil. (1) d)The water continues boiling. (2) e)The gas is turned off. (3) f)The bubbles disappear. (6)

8  Writer complete sentences joining these pairs of events and making any other necessary changes:  Use one of the expressions: When, before, until, after, as soon as *e + b Example: As soon as the gas is turned off, the flame is extinguished. d + *b The water continues boiling until the flame is extinguished. *c + d When the water starts to boil, it continues boiling. *a + e The water ceases boiling after the gas is turned off. *b + a As soon as the flame is extinguished, the water ceases boiling. *a + f When the water ceases boiling, the bubbles disappear.

9 Section 2 Sequence Look at the diagram and observe these words. up along down round across over from past into through out of  Now complete this description: A road leaves the capital at x. It goes up a mountain, along a ridge and down the other side. It goes round a volcano, across a river and over a hill. It joins the road from z at the junction, j. It goes past a lake and into a forest. It goes through the forest at a and comes out of the forest at b. the road reaches the sea at y.

10  Look at these sentences: After the road leaves the capital at x, it goes up the mountain. After leaving the capital at x the road goes up the mountain. When the road reaches a, it goes into the forest. On reaching a, the road goes into the forest. As it goes between the hill and the lake, the road joins the road from z. While going between the hill and the lake, the road joins the road from z.

11  Change these sentences into the second form: After the road goes round the volcano, it crosses the river. After going round the volcano, the road crosses the river. Before the road enters the forest, it passes the lake. Before entering the forest, the road passes the lake When the road emerges from the forest, it is near the sea. On emerging from the forest, the road is near the sea. After the road ascends the hill, it goes along the ridge. After ascending the hill the road goes along the ridge. Before it goes round the volcano, the road descends the mountain. Before going round the volcano the road descends the mountain. As it goes between the hill and the lake, the road joins the road from z. While going between the hill and the lake, the road joins the road from z. When the road reaches the volcano, it goes round it. On reaching the volcano, the road goes round it. As the road travels from x to y, it crosses a river. While travelling from x to y, the road crosses a river.

12  Look at the diagram on page 53. Write nine sentences using the opening phrases in the diagram. Example: After leaving the capital at a, the railway goes past the airport. 1)On reaching the tunnel at a, the railway passes under the mountain. 2)After leaving the tunnel at y, the railway goes up a ridge. 3)Before descending the ridge, the railway makes several turns. 4)On reaching at j, the railway joins a railway line from c. 5)Before crossing the desert, the railway goes past a lake. 6)While crossing the desert, the railway passes an oasis. 7)After crossing the desert, the railway goes up a hill. 8)Until reaching the frontier, the railway descends.

13  Look at these sentences: While crossing the desert, the railway passes an oasis.( الواحة ) The railway crosses the desert, passing an oasis.  (X is simultaneous with Y, or occurs during Y)  Change these sentences into the second form: While going through the tunnel, the railway passes under the mountain. The railway goes through the tunnel, passing under the mountain. While descending the mountain, the railway makes several turns. The railway descends the mountain, making several turns. While passing the lake, the railway travels in a semi-circle. The railway passes the lake, travelling in a semi-circle. While crossing the desert, the railway passes an oasis. The railway crosses the desert, passing an oasis. While approaching the frontier, the railway goes over a hill. The railway approaches the frontier, going over a hill. While travelling between the mountain and the lake, the railway joins the railway line from c. The railway travels between the mountain and the lake, joining the railway line from c.

14 Section 3 Cycle Stages in the life cycle of a plant sowing of seed germination the seed is the seed watered swells growth flowering roots and leaves buds form develop pollination formation of fruit the stigma the flower the seeds receives pollen is fertilized fall death of plant decay NH3 (the plant decomposes) sowing of seed germination the seed is the seed watered swells growth flowering roots and leaves buds form develop pollination formation of fruit the stigma the flower the seeds receives pollen is fertilized fall death of plant decay NH3 (the plant decomposes)

15  Look at the examples:  Preceding actions: Before the plant germinates, it is watered. Before germination, the seed is watered. Prior to germination, the seed is watered.  Following actions: After the plant germinates, the roots and leaves develop. After germination, the roots and leaves develop.  Simultaneous actions: As the plant germinates, the seed swells. During germination, the seed swells.  And this example: After the seed is watered, germination occurs. After the seed is watered, germination takes place.  Look at the examples:  Preceding actions: Before the plant germinates, it is watered. Before germination, the seed is watered. Prior to germination, the seed is watered.  Following actions: After the plant germinates, the roots and leaves develop. After germination, the roots and leaves develop.  Simultaneous actions: As the plant germinates, the seed swells. During germination, the seed swells.  And this example: After the seed is watered, germination occurs. After the seed is watered, germination takes place.

16  Answer these questions: a)What happens prior to germination? Prior to germination, the seed is watered. b)What occurs during growth? During growth the roots and leaves develop. c)What happens before flowering? Before flowering, buds form. d)What takes place after pollination? After pollination formation of fruit takes place. e)What happens after the seeds fall? After the seeds fall, death of the plant occurs. f)What occurs before the plant decomposes? Before the plant decomposes, death of the plant occurs. g)What occurs as the plant decomposes? As the plant decomposes, NH3 forms.

17 Ex.9 The water cycle

18 Join the correct half sentences then write a description of cycle 1.When the sun radiates heat, 2.As soon as the water vapour forms, 3.While rising, 4.When the vapour cools, 5.During condensation, 6.The clouds then move towards land, 7.When the clouds reach high land, 8.As the temperature falls, 9.On being precipitated, 10.After being absorbed, 1.When the sun radiates heat, 2.As soon as the water vapour forms, 3.While rising, 4.When the vapour cools, 5.During condensation, 6.The clouds then move towards land, 7.When the clouds reach high land, 8.As the temperature falls, 9.On being precipitated, 10.After being absorbed, 6. until they reach high land. 8. rain is precipitated. 10. the water flows back to he sea. 3. the vapour cools. 2. it begins to rise. 5. clouds are formed. 4. it condenses. 1.sea water evaporates. 7. the air temperature falls. 9. the rain is absorbed by the soil. 6. until they reach high land. 8. rain is precipitated. 10. the water flows back to he sea. 3. the vapour cools. 2. it begins to rise. 5. clouds are formed. 4. it condenses. 1.sea water evaporates. 7. the air temperature falls. 9. the rain is absorbed by the soil.

19 Section 4 Stages Look again at the life-cycle of a plant and then read this description: First, the seed is sown. Next, it is watered. Then, the seed begins to swell. At this stage, germination begins. Subsequently, the roots develop. Meanwhile, the leaves also develop. Later, flowers appear. Then, pollination takes place. During this process, the stigma receives pollen. Afterwards, the fruit forms. Eventually, the plant dies. Finally, the plant decomposes.

20 1.First 2.Next 3.Then 4.At this stage 5.Subsequently 6.Meanwhile 7.Later 8.Then 9.During this process 10.Afterwards 11.Eventually 12.Finally 1.First 2.Next 3.Then 4.At this stage 5.Subsequently 6.Meanwhile 7.Later 8.Then 9.During this process 10.Afterwards 11.Eventually 12.Finally 1. أولاً 2. قادم 3. ثمّ 4. في هذه المرحلة 5. بعد ذلك 6. في هذه الأثناء 7. لاحقاً 8. ثمّ 9. أثناء هذه العمليةِ 10. بعد ذلك 11. في النهاية 12. أخيراً 1. أولاً 2. قادم 3. ثمّ 4. في هذه المرحلة 5. بعد ذلك 6. في هذه الأثناء 7. لاحقاً 8. ثمّ 9. أثناء هذه العمليةِ 10. بعد ذلك 11. في النهاية 12. أخيراً

21  The words in italics mark stages in a process. Give the following: a)A word which marks the opening, or initial stage. First. b)A word which marks the last, or ultimate, stage. Eventually. c)Two words which mark next or following stages. Next, then. d)Three expressions which mark events occurring some time later. Later, afterwards, subsequently. e)Three expressions which mark simultaneous events. Meanwhile, at this stage, during this process. f)One word which marks an event occurring after a long process. Finally

22 Put these stages in the right order and then match them with the expressions on the left. Stages in building a house. 1.First, 2.Then, 3.Meanwhile, 9. Subsequently, 8. At this stage, 4. Next, 6. Afterwards, 5. Then, 7. Later, 10. Eventually, 11. Finally, 1.First, 2.Then, 3.Meanwhile, 9. Subsequently, 8. At this stage, 4. Next, 6. Afterwards, 5. Then, 7. Later, 10. Eventually, 11. Finally, 7. the drains are dug. 3. the materials are bought. 10. the house is painted. 5. the walls are built. 1.the sight is bought. 2.the sight is leveled. 4. the foundations are laid. 11. the house is ready to live in. 6. the roof is made. 8. the doors and windows are put in. 9. the electricity and water systems are installed.

23 Section 5 Reading  Look at these questions and then read the text. Which paragraph answers each question? a)How do animals take in carbon? (3) b)How is limestone formed? (6) c)What is the carbon cycle? (1) d)How do plants take in carbon? (2) e)How is coal formed? (5) f)How do animals give up carbon? (4)

24 The carbon cycle All plants and animals need carbon for growth. Carbon is present in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide gas. But it is present only in small amounts. This means it has to be used again and again. Animals an plants continually ( بشكل مستمر ) take in and give out carbon during respiration. They also take it in when they feed, and give it out when they die. This continual process is called the carbon cycle. Why do plants and animals need carbon? In which form carbon is present in atmosphere? Is carbon present in large amount? When do plants and animals take in carbon? All plants and animals need carbon for growth. Carbon is present in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide gas. But it is present only in small amounts. This means it has to be used again and again. Animals an plants continually ( بشكل مستمر ) take in and give out carbon during respiration. They also take it in when they feed, and give it out when they die. This continual process is called the carbon cycle. Why do plants and animals need carbon? In which form carbon is present in atmosphere? Is carbon present in large amount? When do plants and animals take in carbon?

25 The carbon cycle Plants take in carbon from the air during photosynthesis. In this process, plants use energy from the sun together with carbon dioxide from the air. They then make sugars, and other carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are needed for the growth of roots, stems and leaves. When do the plants take in carbon? In which process the plants use energy from the sun? Do the plants take energy from other source? What is the use of carbohydrates in plants? Plants take in carbon from the air during photosynthesis. In this process, plants use energy from the sun together with carbon dioxide from the air. They then make sugars, and other carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are needed for the growth of roots, stems and leaves. When do the plants take in carbon? In which process the plants use energy from the sun? Do the plants take energy from other source? What is the use of carbohydrates in plants?

26 The carbon cycle The leaves may subsequently( بعد ذلك ) be eaten by animals, which digest the carbohydrates. The carbon is then used for building muscles and bones. Some of the carbon, however, is returned to the atmosphere after respiration, when carbon dioxide is released from the body. What do animals eat? Which animals eat leaves? What is the use of carbon in animals? How do the animals release ( يطلق )carbon? The leaves may subsequently( بعد ذلك ) be eaten by animals, which digest the carbohydrates. The carbon is then used for building muscles and bones. Some of the carbon, however, is returned to the atmosphere after respiration, when carbon dioxide is released from the body. What do animals eat? Which animals eat leaves? What is the use of carbon in animals? How do the animals release ( يطلق )carbon?

27 The carbon cycle When an animal eventually dies, decomposition( التفسخ ) of the body tissues takes place. Through the action of bacteria and other organisms, the chemicals are broken down, or decomposed, and carbon dioxide is released. What takes place when an animal dies? How are the chemicals broken down? What happens, when chemicals are decomposed? When an animal eventually dies, decomposition( التفسخ ) of the body tissues takes place. Through the action of bacteria and other organisms, the chemicals are broken down, or decomposed, and carbon dioxide is released. What takes place when an animal dies? How are the chemicals broken down? What happens, when chemicals are decomposed?

28 The carbon cycle Some dead plants are buried( مدفون ) under earth. Over millions of years, the pressure of the earth turns them into coal( الفحم ). When coal is burned( يحرق ) to produce heat, carbon dioxide is released. What are buried under the earth? What changes the dead plants into coal? Why is coal burned? What is released during burning of coal? Some dead plants are buried( مدفون ) under earth. Over millions of years, the pressure of the earth turns them into coal( الفحم ). When coal is burned( يحرق ) to produce heat, carbon dioxide is released. What are buried under the earth? What changes the dead plants into coal? Why is coal burned? What is released during burning of coal?

29 The carbon cycle Many tiny animals living in the sea have carbon in their shells, in the form of calcium carbonate at the bottom of the sea. These eventually turn into a rock, called limestone.( حجر الكلس ) After movements of the earth, the limestone may reach the surface. The wind and rain then wear away( ينهك ) the limestone, and some of its carbon is once more released into the atmosphere. Where do the tiny animals in the see have carbon? In which for carbon is present in shells? What are the shells called, when they turns into rocks? Can the limestone reach the surface of the earth? What wear away the limestone? Does carbon release, when limestone is wear away? Many tiny animals living in the sea have carbon in their shells, in the form of calcium carbonate at the bottom of the sea. These eventually turn into a rock, called limestone.( حجر الكلس ) After movements of the earth, the limestone may reach the surface. The wind and rain then wear away( ينهك ) the limestone, and some of its carbon is once more released into the atmosphere. Where do the tiny animals in the see have carbon? In which for carbon is present in shells? What are the shells called, when they turns into rocks? Can the limestone reach the surface of the earth? What wear away the limestone? Does carbon release, when limestone is wear away?


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