Presentation on theme: "The Changing Geology of Our State You will learn about how landforms in Indiana were created and how, over time, they changed."— Presentation transcript:
The Changing Geology of Our State You will learn about how landforms in Indiana were created and how, over time, they changed.
By Aidan Dooley, Caleb Jones, Dagan Gehl, Marcus McGuire, Michael Hannon, Samson Johnson, Tre Smitson
Timeline 3.2 billon years ago Plate Tectonics Started Before there were people, boundaries, nations and states, there was land, water, plants and animals. 700,000 years ago Glaciers came into Indiana 10,000 years ago Glaciers melted in Indiana 1816 Indiana became a state 1890 Farmers began to grow wheat 1900’s Scientists fought to have the region preserved 1960’s Indiana was voted first for best land Here is a timeline of the development of the area we now know as Indiana.
Plate Tectonics Billions of years ago, the Earth may have had one giant land mass. As erosion happened, pieces began to separate. These plates formed continents. The theory of plate tectonics says the earth continues to move.
North America One of the land masses is now known as North America. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic.
Glaciers Gigantic ice cubes, or glaciers, were created 2.4 billion years ago. Around 10,000 years ago, they started to melt. As huge pieces of ice slowly moved, they flattened the earth under them. Nature had begun to make a change in the natural landform.
Lakes Natural lakes were created around 10,000 years ago when glaciers carved the land. When the ice melted, the lakes were filled creating another change in the land. There are 86 lakes in Indiana. Lake Wawasee is the largest natural lake. It has 3000 miles of shoreline. Monroe and Patoka are man made lakes or reservoirs. The lakes range in depth from 30 to 923 feet deep. Bass Lake and Indiana Dunes have state beaches. Lake Wawasee Patoka lake Monroe lake
Rivers Rivers formed yet another change, as water flowed through the land. Ohio River- 981 miles long. Starts in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ends in Cairo, Illinois. Wabash River- 503 miles long. Starts in northwest Ohio and ends in southern Illinois. White River- 362 miles long. Starts in Mitchell, Indiana and ends at Flatrock River in Indiana.
Caves Another land change was formed by erosion along a line of weakness in a cliff. A Karst Region is an area of limestone with sinks, ravines, and underground streams. The streams cut into the limestone, and caves were formed, mostly in southern Indiana. We have a huge thick fault line through our state. Squire Boone Caverns, discovered in 1790, has a lot of streams and waterfalls. It is about 40 feet tall. It is estimated to be more than 1 million years old. Marengo Cave was discovered on September 6 th It is a U.S. National Landmark. Blowing Hole Cave and Binkley Cave are connected and are miles long. It is the biggest cave system in Indiana and 11 th largest in the world. Bluespring Caverns was found in the 1940’s. A large pond disappeared overnight and the entrance to the cavern was found. Fault line Marengo Cave Indiana Caverns Squire Boone Caverns Bluespring Caverns
Mining Mines, like caves, are usually underground. Indiana is one of the top mining states. It has a lot of coal and limestone that businesses often mine. Bituminous coal is Indiana’s most valuable natural resource. The total tonnage of bituminous coal mined in Indiana was 177,612,079 tons. The coal was formed when giant plants that were in swamps and marshes hundreds of years ago died and got buried in the earth. After a while, when the heat and pressure got greater, the coal was formed. Most oil is mined in the southwestern corner of Indiana. The oil in Indiana was formed when small ferns and animals died and sank to the bottom of ancient seas. The remnants got covered with mud. The more mud that covered them, the greater the pressure and heat got. That caused the oil to form. Oil is mostly found in Decatur, Shelby, and Rush County. All of this changes the landscape. Oil Coal
Farmlands Just like mining, farming can change the land. Before you plant your seeds you have to prepare the soil first. Indiana’s most popular crops are corn and soybeans. 66% of Indiana is farmland The growing ranges are from 160 to 190 days. Indiana has 36,418 square miles. In 2009 Indiana was ranked 15 th nationally for total of farm sales. Indiana was also ranked 14 th in number of farms. In 1890 farms in Indiana started to grow wheat.
State/National Parks Brown County State Park- The Glaciers stopped and melted, creating narrow ridges, steep slopes, and deep gullies of Brown County State Park. Chain O'Lakes State Park- has nine lakes connecting to the Park Charlestown State Park, one of the biggest state parks in the world, with 15,000 acres. It has 72 types of birds, including bluebirds, black vultures and the bald eagle. Clifty Falls State Park- Clifty Falls State Park is the best in the summer, it is closed because of all the caves, sinkholes, tunnels, and mining going on, but any other time it is ok. Falls of the Ohio State Park has 220 acres of fossil beds, that are 386-million- years-old.. Harmonie State Park is 25 miles long and in 1814 the rapids were located, making it was the very first park in Indiana to have rapids. Hoosier National Forest- Hoosier National Forest has 200,000 acres and it manages 153 forests, caves and more in Indiana.. Parks preserve the natural environment.
The Future …of Indiana’s Landscape In conclusion you have learned about how landforms are created and how, over time, they can change. Caves, Lakes, Rivers, and Glaciers all help create the change.
The Future …of Indiana’s Landscape But, mining, farming and other activities created by man can also affect nature.
The Future …of Indiana’s Landscape Parks and forests can be set aside to preserve the natural environment.
What can you do to preserve our Indiana environment? What does the Future Hold ? …of Indiana’s Landscape
Credits HighBeam Research. "Caves." Encyclopedia.com, Web. 10 Feb "Cave." World of Earth Science Encyclopedia.com. (March 2, 2015) html Ingle, Mark,”Farmland Indiana”, Perfect PC Services,Jan. 29, 2015www.farmlandindiana.org Indiana Geological Survey, “IGS, Indiana,” Jan. 30,2015www.igs.org Factmonster.com, Feb. 10, 2015 Geology.com, Jan. 30,2015 Rhodes, Frank, “Geology,” New York, page 104.