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CHAPTER 7 MARCH 26 TH, 2015 Terrestrial Caves Solution Holes and Sinkholes.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7 MARCH 26 TH, 2015 Terrestrial Caves Solution Holes and Sinkholes."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 7 MARCH 26 TH, 2015 Terrestrial Caves Solution Holes and Sinkholes

2 Terrestrial Caves and Sinkholes Limestone still dominates Occur all over Florida 1) Terrestrial Caves 2) Sink Communities

3 Terrestrial Caves Air filled spaces Form below the water table as water-filled spaces.  As groundwater levels drop (usually because sea level drops), they fill with air. If cave’s roof strong enough, can hold up overlying earth for centuries, a dry cave. If caves in, forms a sink.  Sink, or sinkhole = a circular depression on the land surface caused by dissolution of underlying limestone  More on SINKS later…

4 Terrestrial Caves 100’s of caves and tunnels in FL’s limestone Predominantly in Woodville, Marianna, and Ocala Karst Plains: Many just West of TLH Vary in size, tiny pockets, to room, to concert halls 100 years of dissolution = 1 in 3 of cavern formation

5 Caves Outside/Entrance  Entrance covered in plants usually  Many animals found around and deep in caves. Inside  Humid atmosphere  Constant 65-70 deg. F  Little to No Light

6 Life in a Cave No light-No photosynthesis, no plants except entrance FOOD WEB: Most nutrients brought in from outside the caves  Surface water runoff, plant litter washed in  Forage outside of cave, bring inside  Bats, woodrats can come and go Inside  Predators prey on other cave inhabitants  Droppings, bat guano!  Carcasses  Decomposers: Fungi and Bacteria

7 Inside: Darkness Stable environment, constant temp. Trade off of stability is darkness Adaptations:  Loss of eyesight  Loss of pigmentation  Enhanced Chemo sensors:  Enhanced smell and taste Adaptive because:  Energy not consumed to develop unnecessary pigment or sight

8 Genetic Isolation: Unique Species Evolve Millipedes Spiders Mites Crayfish BATS! Arthropods Salamanders

9 Specialized animals Rely on other senses  Long limbs for probing in dark  Chemical sensors-finely tuned  Motion detecting organs  Colorless & blind  Genes lots—invest resources for reproduction

10 Florida Bats: Misunderstood 12 species still exist in FL 3 cave roosters  Gray Bat  Southeastern Bat  Eastern Pipistrelle Not blind, rely on Hearing/Echolocation Do not attack humans Rarely carry rabies Mammals 2 offspring a year Weigh > 1 ounce Pollinators, seed dispersers Also insect eaters  500 insects per hour!  Equal to their body weight each night  Effective as insectiside except non-toxic!

11 Florida Bats

12 Sinkhole A circular depression on the land surface caused by the dissolution of underlying limestone 4 types:  Wet sink  Dry Sink  Solution Hole  Funnel Sink Water table = the level at which groundwater rests

13 Types of Sinkholes 1. Wet Sink Deep conical hole in ground that intersects the water table Water at bottom = Aquifer water “Window into Aquifer” Collapsed limestone fell into the groundwater

14 Types of Sinkholes 2. Dry Sink A shallower conical hole in ground that is dry all the way to bottom Collapsed limestone remained ABOVE groundwater

15 Types of Sinkholes 3. Solution Hole A water holding hole in the surface limestone that does not intersect with water table Can usually tell difference between Wet sink and solution hole by color of water  Blue = Wet sink, Aquifer water  Green = Solution hole, rainwater Water at bottom = rainwater Bottom may have been open at one point, now “plugged”

16 Types of Sinkholes 4. Funnel Sink A sinkhole with water swirling down to a lowered water table. When water table rises, the funnel sink becomes a spring, propelling water upward with force. Ex: Leon Sinks field trip “Disappearing stream”

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