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Products from Rocks C1a. Limestone is mainly made from calcium carbonate CaCO 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Products from Rocks C1a. Limestone is mainly made from calcium carbonate CaCO 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Products from Rocks C1a

2 Limestone is mainly made from calcium carbonate CaCO 3

3 Limestone used to make glass HEAT AT HIGH TEMPERATURE Powdered Limestone Sand Sodium carbonate

4 Limestone used to make cement HEAT Powdered Limestone Powdered clay

5 Limestone used to make Concrete MIX Cement powder Water Sand Crushed rock

6 Thermal decomposition – breaking down a chemical by heating

7 Thermal decomposition of limestone Heat Calcium Carbonate Calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2

8 Limestone decomposes to form calcium oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide

9 General equation for the thermal decomposition of a metal carbonate Metal carbonate  Metal oxide + Carbon dioxide

10 Quicklime + water  Slaked lime Calcium oxide + water  Calcium hydroxide CaO + H 2 0  Ca(OH) 2

11 Dissolve slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) in water Filter Produces limewater Lime water – used to test for carbon dioxide Calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide  Calcium carbonate + water Ca(OH) 2 + CO 2  CaO 3 + H 2 O

12 Mortar – slaked lime + sand + water Uses - holds building materials together How – Lime in mortar reacts with carbon dioxide in air producing calcium carbonate Very strong

13 Cement - Limestone + clay Portland Cement – Limestone + clay + other minerals Uses – Modern house building How – Portland cement and sand mixed with water Left for a few days to set

14 Concrete – Stones/crushed rocks + water + cement + sand Very strong – resists forces Reinforced concrete – Poured around steel rods or bars

15 Glass – Powdered limestone + sand + sodium carbonate + strong heat Waterproof and light Available with different properties

16 Metals found in Earths crust, mostly combined with other elements, often oxygen

17 Metal ore – rock containing metal or metal compound

18 Native state – some metals so unreactive they are found as the element naturally

19 The reactivity series is the best way to extract a metal from its ore

20 Metals more reactive than carbon cannot be extracted from their ores using carbon

21 Many metals are found as oxides – combined with oxygen

22 Heat metal oxide with carbon, carbon removes the oxygen from the metal oxide to produce carbon dioxide Metal oxide + Carbon  Metal + Carbon dioxide

23 We call the removal of oxygen in this way a reduction reaction

24 Iron is extracted from iron ore by reducing it with carbon in a blast furnace

25 Haematite – most common iron ore: mainly iron (III) oxide and sand Coke – reducing agent: mainly carbon Limestone – removes impurities

26 C + O 2  CO 2 Hot air into blast furnace Coke burns Heats furnace Forms carbon dioxide gas

27 CO 2 + C  2CO Carbon dioxide reacts with coke Carbon monoxide gas formed

28 Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO  2Fe + 3CO 2 Carbon monoxide reacts with iron oxide Reducing it to molten iron Flows to bottom of furnace

29 Pig iron – produced from blast furnace Many impurities, mainly carbon

30 Remove impurities from pig iron – get pure iron – very soft

31 Metal that contains other elements - alloy

32 Iron alloyed with other elements - steel

33 Carbon steel – 0.03 – 1.5% carbon Cheapest steel Used – cars, knives, machinery, ships, containers, structural steel

34 High carbon steel – lots of carbon – very strong but brittle

35 Low carbon steel – soft and easily shaped, not as strong but less likely to shatter

36 Mild steel – less than 0.1% carbon – easily shaped – mass production of cars

37 Low-alloy steel – 1 – 5% other metals, e.g. nickel, chromium, manganese, vanadium, titanium, tungsten

38 Low alloy nickel – Resistant to stretching forces long span bridges, bike chains, military armour plating.

39 Low-alloy tungsten – good at high temperature High-speed tools

40 High alloy steel – Chromium 12 – 15% Sometimes some nickel too Strong, chemically stable Stainless steel DO NOT RUST!

41 Copper -very soft

42 Bronze – copper and tin plus other elements, e.g. phosphorus Low friction properties

43 Brass – Copper and zinc Hard Can be bent and shaped

44 Smart alloys Shape memory alloys When deformed they return to their original shape when heated

45 Shape memory alloys used in medicine – broken bones Dentistry - braces

46 Transition metal – Good conductors of electricity and heat hard, tough and strong Malleable high melting points

47 Copper extraction – Chemical – use sulfuric acid to produce copper sulfate solution

48 Copper extraction – smelting – heat copper ore strongly in air  crude copper Use impure copper as anodes in electrolysis cells 85% of copper produced like this

49 New ways – bacteria, fungi, plants to extract copper Cheaper, environmentally friendly alternatives to extraction methods

50 Aluminium and titanium useful as they resist corrosion

51 Al and Ti expensive to extract from ores as requires lots of energy ££££££££££££

52 Al extraction – electrolysis Pass an electric current through molten Aluminium oxide at high temperatures

53 Ti extraction – Displacement using sodium or magnesium Need to use electrolysis to produce these first

54 Electrolysis – very expensive, lots of energy due to high temperatures and electricity needed

55 Recycling Al is important Uses much less energy to produce same amount of recycled Al than extract it

56 Crude oil – mixture of many different chemical compounds Not very useful

57 Crude oil must be separated by distillation, into its different substances before it can be used.

58 Distillation separates liquids with different boiling points

59 Nearly all compounds in crude oil are made from atoms of hydrogen and carbon. HYDROCARBONS

60 Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are ALKANES

61 General chemical formula of an alkane C n H 2n + 2 E.g. Methane CH 4 (C = 1, H = (2 x 1+ 2) = 4)

62 Alkanes – saturated hydrocarbons Contain as much hydrogen atoms as possible in their molecules

63 Separate crude oil using fractional distillation

64 Properties of each fraction depend on the size of the hydrocarbon molecules

65 Short molecules – Lower boiling point High volatility Low viscosity Flammable

66 Long molecules High boiling points Low volatility Viscous (thick) Smoky flame

67 Crude oil separated in a fractioning column Temperature decreases going up the column

68 Gases condense when they reach their boiling points

69 Hydrocarbons with smaller molecules – lower boiling points – collect at the cool top of the tower

70 Light crude oil – many smaller molecules Used as fuels More expensive than heavy crude oil

71 Hydrocarbons burn in air they produce carbon dioxide and water

72 Example: Propane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water C 3 H 8 + 5O 2  3CO 2 + 4H 2 O

73 Impurities in fuels may produce other substances which may be poisonous and cause pollution

74 Sulfur dioxide – causes acid rain Most fuels contain some sulfur, which reacts with oxygen when burned

75 Hydrocarbons in car engine Not enough oxygen inside car cylinders, so instead of all changing to carbon dioxide, produces carbon monoxide instead. Incomplete combustion


77 Nitrogen oxides : High temperatures in cars cause N and O in air to react Poisonous Trigger asthma Acid rain

78 Diesel cars – use larger molecule hydrocarbons Do not always burn completely Tiny particles are produced containing carbon and unburnt hydrocarbons Damaging when breathed in

79 Some substances released when fuels are burnt dissolve in droplets of water in air. ACID RAIN

80 GLOBAL WARMING Carbon dioxide  greenhouse gas Reduces amount of heat lost by radiation

81 GLOBAL DIMMING Particulates reflect sunlight back into space

82 Catalytic convertors exhaust gases  catalytic converter  pass over transition metals  arranged with large surface area  carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide react  produce carbon dioxide and nitrogen  reduces pollution

83 Flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) Power stations – sulfur dioxide reacts with quicklime to cut pollution

84 Gasohol Plants that make sugar produce ethanol by fermenting the sugar using yeast. Can use this by adding to petrol Less pollution – burns more cleanly Reduces oil needed

85 Biodiesel Oilseed rape Plants take in carbon dioxide, even though they give it out when burnt Overall this cancels out

86 Energy can be produced from rubbish in an incinerator Disadvantages – produces dioxins which may be dangerous

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