Gathering Resources Silica Sand: Gathered from everywhere in the world. Form of Quartz. Limestone: also found all over the world, but in big rocks. Magnesium Oxide: Taken from nature in the form of Periclase. Aluminum Oxide: Gathered from naturally reoccurring rocks called corundum. Soda Ash: Extracted from ashes of plants and produced from table salt and limestone from Solvay Process.
Manufacturing Production of glass Made by: the mixing of Calcium Carbonate, Sand, and Sodium Carbonate (Waste Glass) Heated in a furnace at 2550° F The molten glass then is then rolled/cut into “globs” -Globs are put into molds then molded by air. This process is called a Parison -The process of expanding the glass is called blowing -Final step of this process is annealing, which is the reheating and gradual cooling
Three types of molding Extrusion- glass is in a tube shaped parison Injection- inject the glass directly into a mold Injection stretch- Glass is blown and stretched by a metal rod at the same time Parison is the the molten glass in the mold before it takes the hollowness of the bottle
Packaging Most Popular way they are packaged in bulk is called pallets. – Pallets usually contain between 1000 and 4000 containers each. – Carried out to the trucks by automatic machines. Aka palletisers which arrange and stack container – Other ways of packaging include boxes and hand sewn sacks.
Consumer Use Various Popular Products – Snapple – Arizona Iced Tea – Alcohol – Root Beer…ect. Cleaner and less dangerous chemically than plastic – However glass breaks
Marketing Mature market business. – Industry sales associated with population growth. Geographical business. – Product is heavy and large in volume, major raw materials (sand, soda ash and limestone) – production facilities need to be close to their markets. Glass furnace—100s of tons of glass Factories run 24/7. – +/- 3% change in production rates. High costs – The marketing challenge predict and influence demand both in the short + long term High level of consumer acceptance and is perceived as a “premium” quality packaging format.
Recycling of Glass Bottles Americans throw away enough glass bottles ever two weeks to fill the, 1,350 foot towers of the world trade center This is the process of turning used glass, back into usable glass You have to separate glass by chemical composition, and sometimes color
Facts Most bottles and jars already contain 25% recycled glass Glass NEVER wears out, it lasts forever Recycling glass reduces pollution by 14-20%
What actually Happens Glass is sorted Put in different colored piles Glass cleaned and crushed in small pieces called cullet Cullet transported to plant and mixed with sand, soda ash and limestones After mixture is complete, it is then put in a furnace that reaches temp. of 2800 Melted glass is dropped into a glass forming machine Mold is then removed, then glass is cooled and inspected.
Sites http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass#Glass_ingr edients http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass#Glass_ingr edients http://www.consol.co.za/irj/go/km/docs/site/ pages/gathering_raw_materials.html http://www.consol.co.za/irj/go/km/docs/site/ pages/gathering_raw_materials.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_oxid e http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_oxid e http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corundum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_carbona te http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_carbona te
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