Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu , W , Th , F

2 Outlines 1. Clean coal technology 2. Coal to chemical (olefins) 3. Coal gasification 4. Coal to liquid fuel

3 Clean coal technology A new generation of coal-burning power plants with energy processes that reduce air emissions and other pollutants. Coal power plants technology must adapt to the changing political climate towards environmental issues.

4 Clean coal technology Clean coal technologies are several generations of technological advances that have led to more efficient combustion of coal with reduced emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. (http://www.nma.org/pdf/fact_sheets/cct.pdf) Wet scrubbers Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Flue Gas Desulfurization Low Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Burners Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Electrostatic Precipitators Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

5 Clean coal technology Wet scrubbers When the emissions reach the flue of the furnace limestone and water are sprayed The SO2 reacts with the calcium carbonate (limestone) to form gypsum (calcium sulfate) The gypsum is collected and used for construction Presenations/Clean%20Coal%20Sam.ppt

6 Clean coal technology Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) IGCC uses a coal gasification system to convert coal into a synthesis gas (syngas) and produce steam. -The hot syngas is processed to remove sulfur compounds, mercury and particulate matter before it is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator, which produces electricity. -The heat in the exhaust gases from the combustion turbine is recovered to generate additional steam -This steam, along with that from the syngas process, then drives a steam turbine generator to produce additional electricity.

7 Clean coal technology Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) The integration of these technologies provides the high efficiency of the combined-cycle design with the low cost of coal

8 Clean coal technology Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) Advantages: -efficiencies currently approaching 50%, IGCC power plants use less coal and produce much lower emissions of carbon dioxide than conventional power plants -Higher output: Using syngas in a gas turbine increases its output -The gasification process in IGCC enables the production of not only electricity, but a range of chemicals, by-products for industrial use, and transport fuels

9 Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage Process consisting of the separation of CO 2 from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere

10 Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage Three processes in the CCS technology [1] 1.Capturing the CO2 produced from industrial or power generation processes 2.Transporting the CO2 to an underground geological formation which is suitable geological formations 3.CO 2 can be used as fluid in “Enhanced Oil Recovery”, where CO 2 pushing the remaining oil [2] [1] [2] “Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)”, Congressional Research Service, June 19, 2009

11 Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage

12 Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage

13 Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage

14 Coal gasification Gasification the process of producing syngas–a mixture consisting primarily of methane (CH4) carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)–from coal and water, air and/or oxygen

15 Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction In coal gasification, four principal reactions are crucial: 1.Steam gasification 2.Carbon dioxide gasification 3.Hydrogasification 4. Partial oxidation reaction S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press

16 Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction 1.Steam gasification The steam gasification reaction is endothermic S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press

17 Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction 2. Carbon dioxide gasification Carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to produce carbon monoxide and this reaction is called Boudouard reaction. This reaction is also endothermic in nature, similar to the steam gasification reaction S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press

18 Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction 3. Hydrogasification Direct addition of hydrogen to coal under high pressure forms methane This reaction is exothermic and requires high temperature and pressure S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press

19 Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction 4. Partial oxidation Combustion of coal involves reaction with oxygen, which may be supplied as pure oxygen or as air, and forms carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Principal chemical reactions between carbon and oxygen involve: S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press

20 Coal gasification Coal gasification scheme Brian H. Bowen, Marty W. Irwin, Devendra Canchi Coal-To-Liquids (CTL) & Fischer-Tropsch Processing (FT). The Energy Center at Discovery Park Purdue University

21 Coal to chemical (CTC) Coal to olefins technology Olefins are one of the most important oil derivatives widely used in industry To reduce the dependence of olefins industry on oil

22 Coal to chemical (CTC) Coal to olefins technology A number of coal-to-olefins (CTO) processes have been developed: 1.UOP/Hydro MTO 2.DMTO developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of Chinese Academy of Science 3.SMTO by Sinopec 4.Lurgi MTP 5.FMTP by Tsinghua University

23 Coal to chemical (CTC) Coal to olefins technology A CTO plant based on the technology was built by Shenhua Group and successfully put into commercial production on January 2011 with capacity 0.7 Mt/a olefins (0.3 Mt/a ethylene, 0.3 Mt/a propylene, and 0.1 Mt/a C4 ).

24 Coal to chemical (CTC) Coal to olefins technology Process flow diagram

25 Coal to liquid fuel Coal to liquid fuel (Coal liquefaction) Block flow diagram X. Zhao, R. D. Mc Gihon, S. A. Tabak Coal to liquid gasoline. Exxonmobil research and engineering, USA

26 Coal to liquid fuel Block flow diagram Brian H. Bowen, Marty W. Irwin, Devendra Canchi Coal-To-Liquids (CTL) & Fischer-Tropsch Processing (FT). The Energy Center at Discovery Park Purdue University

27 Coal to liquid fuel Fischer-Tropsch process converting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide—derived from coal, methane or biomass—to liquid fuels uses hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon-monoxide (CO) to make different types of hydrocarbons with various H 2 :CO ratios In a CTL facility the H 2 and CO can be supplied from the coal gasifier

28 Coal to liquid fuel Fischer-Tropsch process The original Fischer-Tropsch process is described by the following chemical equation:

29 Coal to liquid fuel

30 Fischer-Tropsch process CATALYSTS & PRODUCTS CATALYST PRODUCT Iron Linear alkenes and oxygenates Cobalt Alkanes Nickel Methane Ruthenium High molecular weight hydrocarbons Rhodium Large amounts of hydrocarbons & little oxygenates

31 Coal to liquid fuel Coal to liquid fuel (Coal liquefaction) Block flow diagram

32


Download ppt "Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google