Presentation on theme: "Energy (TKK-2129) Instructor: Rama Oktavian"— Presentation transcript:
1Energy (TKK-2129) Instructor: Rama Oktavian 13/14 Spring SemesterEnergy (TKK-2129)Instructor: Rama OktavianOffice Hr.: M.13-15, Tu , W , Th , F
2Outlines 1. Clean coal technology 2. Coal to chemical (olefins) 3. Coal gasification4. Coal to liquid fuel
3Clean coal technology Clean coal technology A new generation of coal-burning power plants with energy processes that reduce air emissions and other pollutants.Coal power plants technology must adapt to the changing political climate towardsenvironmental issues.
4Clean coal technology Clean coal technology Clean coal technologies are several generations of technological advances that have led to more efficient combustion of coal with reduced emissions of sulfurdioxide and nitrogen oxide.(http://www.nma.org/pdf/fact_sheets/cct.pdf)Wet scrubbersIntegrated Gasification Combined Cycle(IGCC)Flue Gas DesulfurizationLow Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) BurnersSelective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)Electrostatic PrecipitatorsCarbon Capture and Storage(CCS)
5Clean coal technology Wet scrubbers When the emissions reach the flue of the furnace limestone and water are sprayedThe SO2 reacts with the calcium carbonate (limestone) to form gypsum (calcium sulfate)The gypsum is collected and used for construction
6Clean coal technology Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) IGCC uses a coal gasification system to convert coal into a synthesis gas (syngas) and produce steam.The hot syngas is processed to remove sulfur compounds, mercury and particulate matter before it is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator, which produces electricity.The heat in the exhaust gases from the combustion turbine is recovered to generate additional steamThis steam, along with that from the syngas process, then drives a steam turbine generator to produce additional electricity.
7Clean coal technology Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) The integration of these technologies provides the high efficiency of the combined-cycle design with the low cost of coal
8Clean coal technology Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) Advantages: efficiencies currently approaching 50%, IGCC power plants use less coal and produce much lower emissions of carbon dioxide than conventional power plantsHigher output: Using syngas in a gas turbine increases its outputThe gasification process in IGCC enables the production of not only electricity, but a range of chemicals, by-products for industrial use, and transport fuels
9Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage Process consisting of the separation of CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere
10Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage Three processes in the CCS technology Capturing the CO2 produced from industrial or power generation processesTransporting the CO2 to an underground geological formation which is suitable geological formationsCO2 can be used as fluid in “Enhanced Oil Recovery”, where CO2 pushing the remaining oil  “Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)”, Congressional Research Service, June 19, 2009 <http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33801.pdf>
11Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage the CO2 is grabbed after the fossil fuel is burned. The burning of fossil fuels produces something called flue gases. In a post-combustion process, CO2 is separated and captured from the flue gases that result from the combustion of fossil fuel
12Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage CO2 is trapped before the fossil fuel is burned. That means the CO2 is trapped before it's diluted by other flue gases. Coal, oil or natural gas is heated in pure oxygen, resulting in a mix of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This mix is then treated in a catalytic converter with steam, which then produces more hydrogen, along with carbon dioxide
13Clean coal technology Carbon capture and storage the power plant burns fossil fuel in oxygen. This results in a gas mixture comprising mostly steam and CO2. The steam and carbon dioxide are separated by cooling and compressing the gas stream.
14Coal gasification Gasification the process of producing syngas–a mixture consisting primarily of methane (CH4) carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)–from coal and water, air and/or oxygen
15Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction In coal gasiﬁcation, four principal reactions are crucial:Steam gasiﬁcationCarbon dioxide gasiﬁcationHydrogasiﬁcationPartial oxidation reactionS. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
16Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction Steam gasiﬁcation The steam gasification reaction is endothermicS. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
17Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction 2. Carbon dioxide gasificationCarbon dioxide reacts with carbon to produce carbon monoxide and this reaction is called Boudouard reaction.This reaction is also endothermic in nature, similar to the steam gasification reactionS. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
18Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction 3. Hydrogasification Direct addition of hydrogen to coal under high pressure forms methaneThis reaction is exothermic and requires high temperature and pressureS. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
19Coal gasification Coal gasification reaction 4. Partial oxidation Combustion of coal involves reaction with oxygen, which may be supplied as pureoxygen or as air, and forms carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Principal chemical reactions between carbon and oxygen involve:S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
20Coal gasification Coal gasification scheme Brian H. Bowen, Marty W. Irwin, Devendra Canchi Coal-To-Liquids (CTL) & Fischer-Tropsch Processing (FT). The Energy Center at Discovery Park Purdue University
21Coal to chemical (CTC) Coal to olefins technology Olefins are one of the most important oil derivatives widely used in industryTo reduce the dependence of olefins industry on oil
22Coal to chemical (CTC) Coal to olefins technology A number of coal-to-olefins (CTO) processes have been developed:UOP/Hydro MTODMTO developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of Chinese Academy of ScienceSMTO by SinopecLurgi MTPFMTP by Tsinghua University
23Coal to chemical (CTC) Coal to olefins technology A CTO plant based on the technology was built by Shenhua Group and successfully put into commercial production on January 2011 with capacity 0.7 Mt/a olefins(0.3 Mt/a ethylene, 0.3 Mt/a propylene, and 0.1 Mt/a C4 ).
24Coal to chemical (CTC)Coal to olefins technologyProcess flow diagram
25Coal to liquid fuel Coal to liquid fuel (Coal liquefaction) Block flow diagramX. Zhao, R. D. Mc Gihon, S. A. Tabak Coal to liquid gasoline. Exxonmobil research and engineering, USA
26Coal to liquid fuel Coal to liquid fuel Block flow diagram Brian H. Bowen, Marty W. Irwin, Devendra Canchi Coal-To-Liquids (CTL) & Fischer-Tropsch Processing (FT). The Energy Center at Discovery Park Purdue University
27Coal to liquid fuel Coal to liquid fuel Fischer-Tropsch process converting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide—derived from coal, methane or biomass—to liquid fuelsuses hydrogen (H2) and carbon-monoxide (CO) to make different types of hydrocarbons with various H2:CO ratiosIn a CTL facility the H2 and CO can be supplied from the coal gasifier
28Coal to liquid fuel Coal to liquid fuel Fischer-Tropsch process The original Fischer-Tropsch process is described by the following chemical equation:
30Coal to liquid fuel Fischer-Tropsch process CATALYSTS & PRODUCTS CATALYST PRODUCTIron Linear alkenes and oxygenatesCobalt AlkanesNickel MethaneRuthenium High molecular weight hydrocarbonsRhodium Large amounts of hydrocarbons & little oxygenates
31Coal to liquid fuel Coal to liquid fuel (Coal liquefaction) Block flow diagram