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WHAT IS KARST? ITALY SLOVENIA. TWO DOMINANT TYPES OF KARST LANDSCAPE? Determined by the origin or “genesis” of the waters doing the solution.

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS KARST? ITALY SLOVENIA. TWO DOMINANT TYPES OF KARST LANDSCAPE? Determined by the origin or “genesis” of the waters doing the solution."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHAT IS KARST? ITALY SLOVENIA

2 TWO DOMINANT TYPES OF KARST LANDSCAPE? Determined by the origin or “genesis” of the waters doing the solution

3 TWO DOMINANT TYPES OF KARST LANDSCAPE? 1. Autogenic: Waters originate as precipitation directly over the region of Karst. Auto = “self” genesis

4 TWO DOMINANT TYPES OF KARST LANDSCAPE? 1. Autogenic: Waters originate as precipitation directly over the region of Karst……. Auto = “self” genesis. 2. Allogenic: Waters originate in some region other than the Karst and then flow over the limestone – generally as a river….. Allo = Spanish “Allí” = “there” … i.e. Not here!

5 WHAT ARE THE TYPICAL FEATURES OF AN AUTOGENIC KARST LANDSCAPE? Central and South Florida

6 Limestone

7 Sand

8 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3

9 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3 Infiltration Capillary Water

10 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3 Infiltration Capillary Water CO 2 concentration in soil 10x that of atmosphere!

11 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3 Infiltration Capillary Water Highly acid water low CaCO 3 content. Aggressive! Picks out layers (bedding planes) and vertical joints for erosion.

12 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3 Infiltration Capillary Water Bedding planes and vertical joints enlarged by erosion.

13 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3 Infiltration Capillary Water Groundwater table

14 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3 Infiltration Capillary Water Groundwater table rises - more water, greater soil mass

15 Limestone Sand H CO 2 = H 2 CO 3 Infiltration Capillary Water Heavy, saturated soil collapses into underground cavern system, causing surface sinkhole. Period of heavy rains such as tropical storms, hurricanes or stationary fronts

16 Limestone Sand During protracted drought the water table drops, leaving some caverns near the surface empty of water.

17 Limestone Sand Roof of cave collapses when no longer supported by water, and soil falls into sinkhole

18 Limestone Sand Most local streams flow into, but not out of lakes. They leave the region underground via the cave system.

19

20 ORLANDO AREA

21 “SINK HOLE PLAIN”, WEST VIRGINIA

22 CockPit Country, Jamaica

23 WHAT ARE THE TYPICAL FEATURES OF AN ALLOGENIC KARST LANDSCAPE? North Central Florida

24 LIMESTONE North Gainesville South Gainesville 100’

25 CLAY LIMESTONE North Gainesville South Gainesville 100’ 150’

26

27 SAND High Infiltration Rates

28 SAND High Infiltration Rates CLAY Low Infiltration Rates

29 SAND High Infiltration Rates CLAY Low Infiltration Rates Excess Water fills pores – “perched” or “surficial” water table

30 SAND High Infiltration Rates CLAY Low Infiltration Rates Free or Gravitational Water moves horizontally along the geologic junction. Excess Water fills pores – “perched” or “surficial” water table

31 Water table intersects land surface as “springs” and “seeps”, the origin of most creeks in Gainesville

32 HOGTOWN CREEK BOULEWARE SPRINGS GLEN SPRINGS

33 SAND CLAY LIMESTONE North Gainesville South Gainesville 100’ 150’ Payne’s Prairie

34

35 SAND CLAY LIMESTONE North Gainesville South Gainesville 100’ 150’ Biven’s Arm Kanapaha Prairie

36

37 SAND CLAY LIMESTONE North Gainesville South Gainesville 100’ 150’ O’Leno and River Rise State Parks

38 O’LENO STATE PARK RIVER RISE STATE PARK

39 Gainesville Sun May 15, 2012

40 Limestone concealed beneath Hawthorne Formation Limestone at or near the surface O’Leno and River Rise Parks Paynes Prairie


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