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Environmental Interactions: Rural Land Resources Rural Land Resources are the product of the interaction of a wide range of physical factors modified by.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Interactions: Rural Land Resources Rural Land Resources are the product of the interaction of a wide range of physical factors modified by."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Interactions: Rural Land Resources Rural Land Resources are the product of the interaction of a wide range of physical factors modified by human activity. The resultant rural landscapes offer a variety of physical, economic and social opportunities.

2 1.Characteristics of glaciated upland, upland limestone and coastal landscapes. 2.The evolution of these landscapes. 3.Economic and social opportunities in these areas. 4.Environmental problems and conflicts in these areas. 5.UK and European Union policies. Environmental Interactions: Rural Land Resources

3 Assessment in Rural Land Resources The content covered in this unit will be assessed in paper 2.

4 Limestone: Yorkshire Dales Environmental Interactions: Rural Land Resources

5 Topic Outline Limestone landforms in the Yorkshire Dales. Background to the Yorkshire Dales. Land Use in the Yorkshire Dales: – Farming – Tourism – Quarrying Land use conflict in the Yorkshire Dales. Management of land use conflicts.

6 Aims of the lesson To introduce the Rural Land Resources Unit. To practice answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

7 Limestone Landforms in the Yorkshire Dales Lets create a list of limestone landforms you have learnt about in the Yorkshire Dales. Can you remember the named examples?

8 Limestone Pavement e.g. Malham Cove

9 Potholes e.g. Gaping Gill

10 Shakeholes

11 Resurgent Streams

12 Scars & Scree Slopes e.g. Raven Scar

13 Gorge e.g. Cheddar Gorge

14 Dry Valley

15 Caverns e.g. Ingleborough Caves

16 Stalactites, Stalagmites & Pillars e.g. Ingleborough Caves

17 2012 PPQ Paper 2 Q1a The Yorkshire Dales National Park is an area of Upland Limestone. With the aid of annotated diagrams, describe and explain how the main physical features of upland limestone landscapes are formed. Both surface and underground features should be included in your answer. (20 Marks) Tips: Arrange your answer into a series of subheadings: 1.Surface Features Limestone Pavement 2.Underground Features Caverns Stalactites, Stalagmites & Pillars 4 Marks awarded for named examples. Detailed explanation of processes required. 16 marks only if no diagrams included.

18 Homework Complete your 20 mark question at home for next lesson.

19 Summary So far we have… Introduced the Rural Land Resources Unit. Practiced answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

20 Aim of the lesson To practice answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

21 Peer Marking Pass your finished 20 mark answer to another member of the class. Using a highlighter you will mark on the areas where you would give marks. Use the marking scheme provided and textbooks to help you. As bullet points, add in any information you feel they have missed out.

22 Homework Using the peer feedback you have been provided with, rewrite your answer to include all of the missed information.

23 Summary So far we have… Introduced the Rural Land Resources Unit. Practiced answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

24 Aim of the lesson To practice answering 20 mark questions. To develop our ability to write extended answers under exam timed conditions.

25 Sample Answer Take a look at this sample answer for the question you have been tackling in class. Using a post-it, mark this sample answer and also write down any information you feel it may have missed. Now take a look at this handwritten version.

26 Time Test The Yorkshire Dales National Park is an area of Upland Limestone. With the aid of annotated diagrams, describe and explain how the main physical features of upland limestone landscapes are formed. Both surface and underground features should be included in your answer. (20 Marks)

27 Summary So far we have… practiced answering 20 mark questions. developed our ability to write extended answers under exam timed conditions.

28 True or False?

29 Aims of the lesson To learn about the location and background of the Yorkshire Dales To learn the definition of social, economic and environmental factors.

30 Location of the Yorkshire Dales Using the “Modern School Atlas” you are going to writer a brief description of the location of the Yorkshire Dales. It should include: When it opened: 1954 The name of a settlement within it: M______. The names of three cities nearby. The names of the main roads connecting those cities to the Dales.

31 Location of the Yorkshire Dales The Yorkshire Dales National park was founded in It is located in the north east of England. One of the main settlements in the Dales is Malham. Three major cities nearby to the park are Birmingham, Newcastle (both connected by the A1) and Manchester (connected by the M65).

32 Social, Economic & Environmental Factors A social factor is one which will affects the people in the area. An economic factor is one which affects industry in the area. An environmental factor is one which affects the natural landscape.

33 Factors Affecting the Yorkshire Dales Each pair has been given a set of cards containing information on factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales. You must divide these factors into 3 groups: 1.Social Factors 2.Economic Factors 3.Environmental Factors There may be some cross over. Once complete, take a copy of these into your notes.

34 In 2004 it was estimated that tourism brought £350 million to the Yorkshire Dales. The industry supports approx 1250 jobs within the park and the surrounding area. Tourism has led to an increase in services in towns like Malham e.g. cafes, restaurants, shops, hotels. Heavy use of footpaths causes erosion and widens the path as people avoid muddy areas. This leads to some paths being 4 times their normal width. Tourists trespass on farmland causing damage to crops and to dry stone walls. Litter, dog waste and intentional vandalism are a constant problem in the National Park. It increases the risk to livestock and wildlife. As a result of footpath erosion, grazing land is also lost in the Yorkshire Dales. Limestone pavements like Malham Cove have been damaged by feet and stone removal. The lifestyle of the locals is encroached through increased noise, disturbance and loss of privacy. Housing prices have increased in towns like Malham. Locals can no longer afford to purchase homes here.

35 Review Questions Give 2 social factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales you have learnt. Give 2 economic factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales you have learnt. Give 2 environmental factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales you have learnt.

36 Summary To learn about the location and background of the Yorkshire Dales To learn the definition of social, economic and environmental factors.

37 Aims of the lesson To understand how quarrying is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales. To learn the social, economic and environmental impacts of quarrying in YD with reference to named examples. To identify conflicts and solutions between quarrying and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

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40 Jobs You should be in groups with a maximum of 4 people per group – Timekeeper – keeping track of the time and making sure all tasks are completed within the time limit. – Resource Manager – responsible for collecting and returning all resources required e.g. maps, paper etc. – Chairperson – ensures that everyone has a chance to have their say and help keep the discussion on track. – Recorder – Makes notes on what has been discussed by the group.

41 What you will need Once each person in the group has a role the Resource Manager should collect the following – A copy of the Ingleton map – A set of characters (4) and statements (6) for your group – Lined paper to record the discussions

42 Roles For this activity each of you is going to take on a role: 1.Quarry Manager 2.Local Resident 3.National Park Authority Representative 4.Potholer

43 Task 1: Discussion As a group identify the quarry at grid reference (this quarry spills over into parts of two squares). The owners of this quarry have applied to extend the quarry to the North-west of its current location. As a group you will have to discuss the merits and disadvantages of the extension and come to a decision on whether or not the extension can go ahead. You will have 15 minutes for your initial discussions – the recorder should keep accurate notes of what is being discussed, timekeepers and chairperson make sure the group is on track!

44 Task 2: Conflict Spider Diagram For the Yorkshire Dales we are going to create am A3 spider diagram that outlines the key conflicts that exist between land uses. We will also add in possible solutions to these conflicts.

45 YORKSHIRE DALES Tourism Farming Quarrying Conflicts Solutions Suitable

46 Summary Today we have… understood how quarrying is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales. learnt the social, economic and environmental impacts of quarrying in YD with reference to named examples. identified conflicts and solutions between quarrying and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

47 Review Questions

48 Aims of the lesson To understand how farming is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales. To learn the challenges and changes to farming in the Yorkshire Dales with reference to named examples. To identify conflicts and solutions between farming and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

49 Farming in the Yorkshire Dales The Yorkshire Dales landscape is one of small fields enclosed with limestone dry stone walls. This traditional way of life is now increasingly under threat due to pressure on farming practices.

50 Sheep farming

51 Cattle are reared where there is slightly better pasture.

52 Suitability of Farming in Yorkshire Dales Why do you think that farming is a suitable land use in the Yorkshire Dales? Add this information to your A3 spider diagram.

53 Diversification Diversification is when farmers give over land to purposes other than farming. In your notes, brainstorm some ideas for a diversified farm.

54 Diversification on farms Farm shop Tea rooms New products

55 Places to stay Bunkhouses Campsites Hotels Guesthouses B&B

56 Mountain Biking Caving / Potholing Motor biking

57 Walking Pony Trekking

58 Your Diversified Farm Each of you is going to get the chance to plan your own diversified farm in the Yorkshire Dales. It should: Be completed on graph paper. Be neatly annotated. Contain a wide variety of different examples of diversification. Use the photographs on your tables and p34 of the Higher Environmental Interactions textbook to help you.

59 Conflict Spider Diagram Using the information on p32 and 33 of the Higher Environmental Interactions textbook. Look carefully at figure 1.47a & 1.47b.

60 Pressures & Solutions Conflicts Increased production costs mean small farms struggle to compete with agribusiness. Increased pressure from tourists. Despite EU grants, subsidies and price guarantees, farmers still struggle to maintain income levels. Maintenance of traditional farm lifestyle is uneconomical. Sale prices for stock have fallen. Increases in cheaper imports, BSE and reduced demand for meat products. Solutions UK Government payments for farmers in less favoured areas. EU Common Agricultural Policy supports cattle and sheep farmers. Farm diversification increases income. Barn and walls conservation scheme payments. Countryside Stewardship Scheme (CSS) pays grants to farmers who manage their land in a traditional way. Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs). Farmers who own ESAs receive payments for reducing the intensity of production.

61 Summary So far we have… understood how farming is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales. learnt the challenges and changes to farming in the Yorkshire Dales with reference to named examples. identified conflicts and solutions between farming and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

62 Aims of the Lesson To understand why the Yorkshire dales is situated for the tourist industry. To learn the social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in YD with reference to named examples. To identify conflicts and solutions between tourism and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

63 Malham - Honey pot Problems include parking

64 Places to stay Bunkhouses Campsites Hotels Guesthouses B&B

65 Mountain Biking Caving / Potholing Motor biking

66 Walking Pony Trekking

67 Goredale Scar Malham Cove

68 Janet’s Foss a beauty spot close to Malham

69 Activity Think about all the land uses the YD have that are aimed at tourism. Try to sort them into a table with the following headings: SocialEconomicEnvironmental Small quaint villages Hotels and B&BsBeautiful Scenery Close to major cities Limestone caves for caving Add this information to your spider diagram

70 Problems What are some of the problems of tourism in the YD? Use the tourism information sheet to create a poster for tourism in the YD. It should promote sustainable tourism by explaining how the activities people will be taking part in will not negatively impact the environment. Your poster should include: 1.Why tourism is popular in the Dales. 2.Problems caused by unsustainable tourism. 3.Methods used to make tourism sustainable in the Dales. 4.Plenty of facts and figures!

71 Ritter Paving used to surface car parks providing a Hard wearing surface that is environmentally friendly

72 Conflict Spider Diagram Using the information from your poster and tourism hand-out to complete your diagram for tourism.

73 Summary So far we have… – Seen what type of tourist activities are available in the Yorkshire dales and be able to explain why they are suited for this environment. – Looked at some of the problems of the tourist industry and tried to find some workable solutions that keep the industry sustainable – Used named examples of villages that have tried to combat the conflict of tourist with locals.

74 Past Paper Question (2012) Social – tourism, recreation, nature conservation. Economic – farming, forestry, water supply, energy generation, quarrying.

75 Sample Answer The YDs can be found in the north west of England. It is nearby to major cities such as Newcastle, Leeds and Manchester (1) which makes it an ideal area for day trippers and weekend visitors (1). They can access the area easily on roads such as the A1 (1). This means that the YDs has access to a large number of tourists. The outstanding natural beauty of the area (1), including limestone pavements at Malham (1), all act as a hook for people. This has provided economic opportunities for people to set up tourist led industries such as B&Bs and cafes (1). In turn this has led to a thriving business and around 1250 jobs for the locals of the area (1). The number of tourists and natural scenery allowed the creation of a National park in 1954 (1). This increased the price of housing in the area. It also allowed for restrictions being placed on buildings helping small villages and towns to retain their charm (1). The presence of limestone (1) has allowed for quarrying to take place e.g. Swindon Quarry (1). These 8 quarries employ roughly 7% of the YD population (1).

76 Sample Answer The YDs can be found in the north west of England. It is nearby to major cities such as Newcastle, Leeds and Manchester (1) which makes it an ideal area for day trippers and weekend visitors (1). They can access the area easily on roads such as the A1 (1). This means that the YDs has access to a large number of tourists. The outstanding natural beauty of the area (1), including limestone pavements at Malham (1), all act as a hook for people. This has provided economic opportunities for people to set up tourist led industries such as B&Bs and cafes (1). In turn this has led to a thriving business and around 1250 jobs for the locals of the area (1). The number of tourists and natural scenery allowed the creation of a National park in 1954 (1). This increased the price of housing in the area. It also allowed for restrictions being placed on buildings helping small villages and towns to retain their charm (1). The presence of limestone (1) has allowed for quarrying to take place e.g. Swindon Quarry (1). These 8 quarries employ roughly 7% of the YD population (1).

77 Aims of the lesson To look more closely at conflicts between land users in the Yorkshire Dales. To discuss possible solutions to these problems in the Yorkshire Dales.

78 Land Use in Physical Environments Land Use: How we make use of the land. Land Use Conflict: How different land uses have difficulties with each other. Land Use Management: Measures put in place to reduce difficulties between different land users

79 Limestone: Yorkshire Dales Created in 1954 Land Uses: – Quarrying Limestone easy to extract. Used in steel industry. – Hill-Sheep Farming Cold & wet climate – poor for growing crops. Very little water near the surface. – Tourism £50 million per year. – Military Tough landscape suitable for training.

80 Land Use Conflicts Roles Each of you is going to be given a role to take on for this activity. Malham Local Tourist Quarry Worker Farmer Task You are going to discuss the reasons why each of the land uses would be in conflict with each other. Two people will discuss the reasons why they are in conflict. One person will chair the discussion. One person will keep notes on what is being said.

81 Land Use Conflict Locals V Tourists Damage to local way of life. Traffic congestion. Increased house prices. Loss of services for locals. Loss of young people. Quarrying V Local Residents Air pollution from lorries transporting limestone. Traffic congestion on the roads. Tourists V Farmers Litter. Gates left open. Livestock frightened by dogs off leash. Landscape degradation (dry stone walls & footpaths)

82 Solutions: Quarry V Locals 1.Limited blasting 2.Wash lorries (remove dust) 3.Covered trains (contain dust) 4.New tracks 5.Tree screening 6.Redevelop quarry after use.

83 Solutions: Farmers V Tourists 1.Put up signs to educate tourists on Country Code. 2.Provide litter bins. 3.Kissing gates. 4.Projects to repair walls. 5.Hard surface footpaths.

84 Solutions: Tourists V Locals 1.Preferential housing for locals. 2.Ritter paving (increase parking space). 3.Park & ride schemes. 4.Postal Bus Shuttle.

85 2008 Past Paper Question For the Peak District National Park or a named upland area you have studied; explain the environmental problems and conflicts which may arise from the competing demands of different land uses. 14 Marks Tips: You must make reference to a named area with examples. Deal with each conflict separately: – Tourist V Locals – Locals V Quarry – Farmers V Tourists – Farmers V Quarry etc.

86 Sample Answer For the Peak District National Park or a named upland area you have studied; explain the environmental problems and conflicts which may arise from the competing demands of different land uses. 14 Marks ANSWER

87 Summary So far we have… looked more closely at conflicts between land users in the Yorkshire Dales. discussed possible solutions to these problems in the Yorkshire Dales.

88 Aims of the lesson To learn the names of organisations responsible for managing and protecting the landscape of the Yorkshire Dales. To learn the names of schemes that land users can use in order to promote sustainable development in the YD.

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