# NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER WELL DRILLING SECTOR OF TURKEY Speaker: Asst. Prof. Dr. A. Ferhat BAYRAM Eng. Adil ÖZDEMİR Eng. Fatih ÜÇGÜN Asst. Prof. Dr.

## Presentation on theme: "NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER WELL DRILLING SECTOR OF TURKEY Speaker: Asst. Prof. Dr. A. Ferhat BAYRAM Eng. Adil ÖZDEMİR Eng. Fatih ÜÇGÜN Asst. Prof. Dr."— Presentation transcript:

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER WELL DRILLING SECTOR OF TURKEY Speaker: Asst. Prof. Dr. A. Ferhat BAYRAM Eng. Adil ÖZDEMİR Eng. Fatih ÜÇGÜN Asst. Prof. Dr. Gürsel KANSUN SELCUK UNIVERSITY

22 Introduction Mean Precipitation 643 mm/m 2 Turkey ’s Surface Area 780 000 km 2 A Precipitation Volume 501 billion m³ Evaporation 274 billion m³ Leakage into Groundwater 41 billion m³ Surface water Total Surface Runoff Exploitable Surface Runoff 186 billion m³ 98 billion m³ Groundwater Groundwater Safe Yield 14 billion m³ Total Potential (net)112 billion m³ Water Resources Potential of Turkey

3 Introduction Countries can be classified according to their water wealth: Poor: Annual water volume per capita is less than 1000 m 3 Insufficient / Water Stress: Annual water volume per capita is less than 2000 m 3 Rich: Annual water volume per capita is more than 8000- 10000 m 3 Turkey is not a rich country in terms of existing water potential. Turkey is a water stress country according to annual volume of water available per capita. The annual exploitable amount of water has recently been approximately 1500 m 3 per capita.

4 Introduction The State Institute of Statistics (DIE) has estimated Turkey’s population as 100 million by 2030. So, the annual available amount of water per capita will be about 1000 m 3 by 2030. The current population and economic growth rate will alter water consumption patterns. As population increases, annual allocated available amount of water per person will decrease. The projections for future water consumption would be valid on the condition that the water resources were protected from pollution at least for the next 25 years. It is imperative that available resources be evaluated rationally so as to provide clean and sufficient water resources for the next generation.

5 Introduction In 2003, 40.1 billion m 3 volume of water was consumed in various sectors in Turkey; 29.6 billion m 3 in the irrigation sector, 6.2 billion m 3 in the water supply sector, 4.3 billion m 3 in the industrial sector. This sum corresponds to development of only 36.5% of the available exploitable potential of 112 billion m 3. With ongoing studies, it is aimed at using the maximum portion of available potential in the country.

6 Neotectonic Framework of Turkey (Şengör et al., 1985; Barka, 1992). 1. Granitic rocks, 2. Late Cretaceous TH-CA volcanism, 3. Late Cretaceous CA-A (Şoşonitik) volcanism, 4. Ophiolitic suture zone. Hydrogeology of Turkey: Folds Of particular relevance is classical four fold subdivision of Ketin (1966) 1- Pondides 2- Anatolides 3- Taurides 4- Border folds

The pontides are separated from the Anatolides by a major Tethyan suture, the İzmir - Erzincan suture, whereas the Anatolides exhibit strong Alpine deformation and metamorphism. There are three major zones the Pontides: (1) Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic permeable sedimentary rocks and impermeable granites metamorphosed in green schist facies; (2) The Istanbul zone with a Precambrian metamorphic basement overlain by permeable sedimentary rocks of Cambrian to Eocene age with numerous major unconformities; (3) The Sakarya Zone consists of thick, impermeable unmetamorphosed or variably metamorphosed, intensely deformed and imbricated basement, (3) The Karakaya Complex and a cover of Mesozoic to Tertiary permeable clastics and carbonates. 7 Hydrogeology of Turkey: Pontides

8 Prior to Paleozoic, and Paleozoic aged aquifer units: Limestone (Kartal fm, Denizli fm), sandstones (İstanbul fm, İnkum fm, Kardon fm, Çapakdere fm, Arıdere fm), dolomitic limestone (Gökgöl fm) Mesozoic aged aquifer units : Limestone (Hankırıtepesi kçt, Kızıltepe fm), sandstones (Karatepe fm, Kırandağ fm) Cenozoic aged aquifer units : Conglomerate and sandstones (Düdenyaylası fm, Örencik fm, Çukurca fm), limestone (Soğucak kçt), alluvium, terrace, deposits cones (Kırcasalih fm)

The Anatolides exhibit strong Alpine deformation and metamorphism. There are four units in the Anatolides: –The Menderes Massif, –The Afyon Zone, –The Tavşanlı Zone and –The Kırşehir Massif. 9 Hydrogeology of Turkey: Anatolides

10 Hydrogeology of Turkey: Anatolides Prior to Paleozoic, and Paleozoic aged aquifer units: Sandstones (Sarıcasu fm), crystalline limestone (Arıkaya fm), limestone (Balıkbaşı fm,) Mesozoic aged aquifer units: Limestone (Budağan kçt), reef limestone (Çaldağ fm), sandstones (Haymana fm) Cenozoic aged aquifer units: Conglomerate and sandstones (Küredağ fm, Büyükpolatlı fm, Bala fm, Toklargölü fm, Büyükşeyhefenditepe fm), limestone (Çayraz fm, Küçükpolatlı fm, Mezgit fm, Cihanbeyli fm), alluvium

Hydrogeology of Turkey: Taurides The Taurides consist of a series of superimposed nappes, which, with some notable exceptions, do not show Alpine regional metamorphism, and comprise Early Paleozoic to latest Cretaceous or Early Tertiary mostly sedimentary rocks of platform and continental margin affinity. 11

12 Hydrogeology of Turkey: Taurides There are six units in the Taurides: 1- The Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone: low – grade metamorphics composed mainly of meta-clastics with rare metabasite and recrystallized horizons constituting the eastward extension of the Afyon Zone 2- The Aladağ Unit: a complex characterized by thrust sheeted Devonian to Late Cretaceous platform-type permeable sediments. 3- The Bozkır Unit: a peridotite nappe with Mesozoic low permeable volcano- sedimentary rocks which forms a local tectonic cover for the Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone and Aladağ unit. 4- The Geyikdağı Unit: a relatively autochthonous unit, consisting of Cambrian to Eocene platform – type permeable sediments. 5- The Alanya Nappes: a sequence of Mesozoic continental margin type permeable sediments which is tectonically overlain by the Tekirova opholite in the west and by a impermeable metamorphic complex comprising eglogites and blueschists. 6- The Lycian Nappes comprising a complex of thrust sheets composed mostly of Mesozoic impermeable sedimentary and low permeable volcanic rocks of continental margin type together with a major peridotite nappe.

Hydrogeology of Turkey: Border Folds The Border folds are the gently folded foreland of the Alpine orogeny, and represent the northern extension of the Arabian Platform to the south of the Bitlis suture. 13 They are represented by three major, approximately east-west – trending tectonic zones in the region, namely (1) the Arabian Platform, (2) a zone of imbrications, and (3) a zone of nappes. These zones are separated from one another by major thrusts. The Arabian Platform represents an autochthonous or paraautochthonous sedimentary succession which accumulated, with minor interruptions, since Early Paleozoic time on a craton stabilized during Pan-African orogenic events. Also included within it are Upper Cretaceous ophiolite nappes and their latest Cretaceous to Miocene permeable sedimentary cover.

14 Hydrogeology of Turkey: Border Folds Prior to Paleozoic, and Paleozoic aged aquifer units: Sandstones (Sadan fm- 680m), dolomitic limestone (Dolomit fm- 260m), Limestone (Koruk fm-1100m, Bedinan fm-620m, Dadaş fm-250m) Mesozoic aged aquifer units: Limestone (Goyan grubu, Mardin kçt), reef limestone (Sayındere fm, Raman and garzan kçt), turbiditic sandstones (Germav fm) Cenozoic aged aquifer units: Conglomerate and Sandstones (Gercüş fm-800m, Şelmo fm-500m), limestone (Midyat kçt-300m, Silvan kçt- 100m), alluvium, terrace, deposits cones (Lahdi fm-100m, Dicle fm- 50m)

Development of Water Well Drilling in Turkey Water well drilling processes in Turkey started by the foundation of Department of Groundwater within General Directorship of State Hydraulic Works (SHW) in 1954. It was accepted that the drinking and usage water requirement of municipalities would be carried out by Machine and Drilling Unit set up within the structure of Provincial Bank in 1963. After that, the opinion of undertaking the drilling works by SHW dominated. The Drilling Bureau of General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MRE), Sugar Factories Joint-Stock Companies and General Directorship of Agricultural Enterprise (GDAE) make water well drillings with their own equipments and machines even if in very little amounts. Beginning from 1969, private water well drilling companies started to be established. Most of the water well drillings are performed by private companies in Turkey. 15

Present Situation of Drilling Sector and Education Water well drilling sector in Turkey is separated into two as public and private foundations. –Public foundations are; State Hydraulic Works (SHW), Provincial Bank, Provisional Special Administrations, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MRE), Sugar Factories Joint Stock Companies, Agricultural Enterprises. –There are approximately 700 private companies. 16

When we consider the application sector, we focus on the following subjects. It’ll be useful to investigate each subject one by one. The number of engineer and driller who command the drilling technique in the sector is very limited. One of the problems developing water well drilling sector in Turkey is driller education or occupational education and its development. It’s unfortunately not possible to say that the importance of drilling mud is perceived sufficiently in water well drilling studies in Turkey. The number of water wells which are illegal and not suitable for water well construction technique is increased in the last years and the problems such as groundwater pollution, dropping of groundwater level depending on excess water drawing and salting, etc. occur parallel to this increase. 17

Statistics of Used Drilling Machine and Equipments 10.2% of waterwell drilling machines used in Turkey are imported and 89.8% of them are obtained by local fabrication 18

19 Statistics of Used Drilling Machine and Equipments In Turkey, there are totally 120 imported machines: 47 Failing/Speedstar, 33 Ingersollrand, 21 Drilltech/Tamrock, 10 Masaranti and 9 other trademarks

20 Rotation systems of drilling machines used in water well drilling studies in Turkey are mostly with rotating tables Statistics of Used Drilling Machine and Equipments 95% of water drilling machines is rotary table and 5% of them are top drive/top head 49% of imported water well drilling machines are rotary table and 51% of them are top drive/top head

21 Type of pump used in water well drilling studies is usually centrifugal type pump In water well drilling studies, centrifuge pumps are used in a rate of 80% and piston pumps are used in a rate of 20% as a mud pump

22 In drilling studies, imported drill pipes having various diameters are generally used Drill pipes used in waterwell drilling studies in Turkey Diameters of drill pipes used in waterwell drilling studies in Turkey

23 Mostly tricone bits with Volgaburmash trademark are used as bits The type of bits using used in waterwell drilling studies in Turkey The situation of tricone bits used in waterwell drilling studies in Turkey The trademarks of bits used in waterwell drilling studies in Turkey

24 In addition to this, down the hole hammer (DTH) and bits used in water well drilling studies in Turkey are imported and they’re with Atlas Copco trademark Down the hole hammers (DTH) and bits used in waterwell drilling studies in Turkey The trademarks of down the hole hammer (DTH) used in waterwell drilling studies in Turkey

25 Plastic pipes are preferred as pipes

Perforated Formations, Well Depths and Perforation Prices When geological data of 2640 water drilling wells opened in 73 cities by various foundations and institutions between 1998 and 2006 in Turkey are evaluated, it was concluded that approximately 50% of water drilling wells are opened in alluvium of old or new valley, 20% of them in limestones, 15% of them in extrusive rocks such as Basalt, Andesite, Tuff, Agglomerate, 10% of them are in drainage area where sandy, pebbly and clayey levels of old lake beds are present, 5% of them are opened in rocks such as Granite, Diabase, Serpentine 26

27 Perforated Formations, Well Depths and Perforation Prices When depth data of 2640 water drilling wells opened in 73 cities by various foundations and institutions between 1998 and 2006 in Turkey are evaluated, it was concluded that approximately 14 % of water drilling wells have a depth < 50m, 37 % of them have a depth of 50-100 m, 15 % of them have 101-149 m depth, 22 % of them have 150-199 m depth, 7 % of them have 200-249 m depth, 2.3 % of them have a depth of 250-299 m, 1.2 % of them have 300-349 m depth, 1.5 % of them have a depth > 350 m

28 When depth data of 2640 water drilling wells opened in 73 cities by various foundations and institutions between 1998 and 2006 in Turkey are evaluated, it was concluded that approximately 95% of water drilling wells are 25-250 m in depth, 5% of them have 250-450 m depth Perforated Formations, Well Depths and Perforation Prices

29 The prices of waterwell drillings in Turkey according to formation hardness (1 m drilling price)

Water Well Drilling Capacity in Turkey Distribution of water drillings made in Turkey regarding sectors is as in Figure 30

31 As a summary, as it can be seen in Table, The annual drilling demand in Turkey is 18100 wells and is approximately 1705000 meters. 12.4% of these drillings are made by public institutions and 87.6% of them are made by private sector institutions * The number of machines in private drilling companies is given according to questionnaire since reliable data are not found.

Results 95% of municipalities in Turkey meet the drinking water need from ground waters being 60% from drilling wells and 35% from source (70% of population in Turkey, i.e. 49 million people) and 5% of them meet their need by treating surface waters (30% of population in Turkey, i.e. 21 million people). 98% of villages meet their drinking water need from ground waters. 85% of them provide from source, 13% of them from drilling wells, 2% of them from streams, dams, lakes and ponds. In Turkey, 20.9% of irrigation water need is met from ground waters and 79.1% of it is met from surface waters. 32

33 Results The annual water drilling demand in Turkey is 18100 wells and is approximately 1705 000 meters. 12.4% of these drillings are made by public institutions and 87.6% of them are made by private sector institutions.

34 Most of the materials used in water well drilling studies are imported from abroad. Local manufacturing studies do not excess atelier’s level and is not accepted as an engineer’s work or manufactured materials are not attractive for users because of not being produced in adequate quality. Results

35 Groundwater’s Problems and solves

THANK YOU VERY MUCH 36

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