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Ch Water Shapes the Land

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1 Ch. 23.3 Water Shapes the Land
Objectives: What is the most important factor influencing the ability of a stream to cause erosion? What features are formed by surface water erosion? What features are deposited by running water? What causes ground water erosion?

2 Water moves sediment (Erosion) & that changes Earth’s surface features
Deposition = Sediment is laid down in a new location

3 Stream Erosion – Depends on…
(1) Speed of water: Faster streams – carry more sediment & carry larger sediments = more erosion (2) Volume: Floods = More water = more erosion (3) Slope: Steeper slope = more erosion. Features formed by water erosion: V shaped Valleys Waterfalls Meanders Oxbow Lakes

4 Features formed by Water Erosion: V shaped Valleys
Streams flow fast down slopes & carry sediments from the stream bed with them – creating a V pattern V-valleys involve fast moving water in Mt. regions meander

5 Yellowstone River has cut a V-shaped valley
Waterfalls form where streams move over rocks that are less resistant to weathering (softer). As this rock erodes faster than surrounding rock a drop is created.

6 V-shaped valleys can widen into broader river banks and flood plains.
Rivers change shape. Faster moving water on outside bend erodes riverbank (cutbank). Slower moving water on inside bends deposit sediment. Over time this creates BENDS or MEANDERS.

7 Flooding in a flood plain

8 Meandering river processes


10 Features formed by Water Erosion
Meanders & Oxbow Lakes

11 Meander in Canyonlands N.P., Utah

12 Green River, NY

13 Features Formed by Water Deposition
Deltas & Alluvial Fans: Fan-shaped mound of sediments. Fans: Rivers dump sediment into a valley at the base of a mountain. Deltas: Rivers dump sediments into large bodies of water (ocean). Triangle shape of Deltas & Fans

14 Copper Canyon Alluvial Fan
(Death Valley N.P., CA)

15 Mississippi River Delta


17 Ground Water Erosion Sink hole Chemical weathering dissolves calcium containing rocks like limestone. Results: Caves/Caverns and Sink Holes form Carlsbad Caverns

18 Cave Formation: Chemical Weathering (usu. Limestone)
Stalactites: Grow from ceiling (icicles) Water drips into cave. Carbon dioxide enters air, minerals come out of solution to form stalactites & Stalagmites Stalagmites: Grow from base & form columns Stalagtites: Grow from ceiling

19 Carlsbad Caverns (NM) Limestone slowly dissolving away


21 Karst Topography (caves and sinkholes in limestone) Ex: Kentucky

22 Ch. 23.4 Glaciers & Wind Objectives: How do glaciers form?
What landscape features are created by glacial erosion & deposition? What are the effects of wind erosion & deposition

23 HW QUIZ Describe 2 features/landforms created by glacial erosion.
What’s “Moraine” and how is it created? How are dunes created?

24 Glaciers – Where more snow falls than melts or sublimates
Continental: Thick ice sheet on huge land mass (Antarctica or Greenland) Valley: Occurs in high mountain valley (icebergs “calve” off continental marine glaciers)

25 Glaciers are move slowly
Weight of snow pressing down, makes ice. Weight of ice layers also melts bottom layer of ice so that glacier can slide.

26 Glacial Erosion 1. Abrasion – boulders trapped under glaciers gouge and scratch our land and rock surfaces (Glacial striations = claw marks) 2. Plucking – frost wedging that occurs at the base of the glacier breaks up rock.

27 Glacial Erosion produces…
1. U shaped Valley (Cirques) 2. Horns 3. Glacial Lakes

28 Glacial Signatures… 4. “Erratic” Boulder =
deposited by receding glacier 5. Till = Glacial sediment of assorted size (Boulders, gravel, sand, pulverized rock dust) formed as glacier erodes surface 6. Moraine – mounds of “poorly sorted” sediment at downhill end of glacier and along sides (Poorly sorted = big clasts/cobbles & fine sediment)



31 Central Park, NYC Striations in rock show the motion of ancient ice sheets.

32 Poorly Sorted Glacial Till

33 Glacier Features


35 Glaciation in our Area

36 Wind Erosion & Deposition
Wind erodes land by deflation (wind picks up & carries loose surface material) and abrasion Wind Deposits: Dunes & Loess Loess – silt deposits from glaciers or deserts Sand Dunes

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