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Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States Mark P. Widrlechner USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Ames,

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Presentation on theme: "Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States Mark P. Widrlechner USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Ames,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States Mark P. Widrlechner USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Ames, IA

2 Acknowledgments  ISU Media Graphics (Rex Heer) for moisture balance map  Spatial Climate Analysis Service - Oregon State University for precipitation maps  Cris Nass and Robert Stebbins for help with scanning

3 Outline of Presentation  Overview  Applying geographic factors to the South Central US  Plants and potential sites

4 Overview  Location-specific factors influencing the adaptation of woody plants in the Midwest  Photoperiod regimen  Winter injury  Moisture balance  Soil type

5 Photoperiod Regimen  Key factor to signal growth and the cessation of growth  Directly correlated with latitude  Plants evolve in response to the interaction of photoperiod and correlated events

6 Winter Injury  Three main aspects  Timing of hardening  Mid-winter low temperature survival  Timing of dehardening  Also, interaction with moisture conditions, especially for evergreens  USDA Hardiness Zones (average annual minimum temperature) are an easily obtainable surrogate (especially for regions resembling the target environment)

7 Moisture Balance  Perhaps as important as winter hardiness (especially in low maintenance situations)  Widrlechner et al. (1992) J. Environ. Hort. 10: 192- 198 and J. Environ. Hort. 16: 27-32.  Can visualize based on the Moisture Index of Mather and Yoshioka: I m = 100((mean annual precipitation/potential evapotranspiration)-1)

8 From Widrlechner (1999) "A Zone Map for Mean Annual Moisture Balance in the North Central United States," Landscape Plant News 10(2): 10-14.


10 Valuable Soil Types  pH (neutral to alkaline)  High Ca or Na content  Relatively poor drainage  Thin (for drought tolerance)

11 Applying this Approach to the South Central United States  Latitude (35 to 40° North)  USDA Hardiness Zones (6a and b)

12 Resulting Region  Southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma on the west  Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee on the east

13 Adding the Moisture Balance Criterion  Areas in the western two-thirds of Kansas and Oklahoma have negative moisture balances (too dry)  Kentucky and Tennessee have high positive moisture balances (too wet)  Parts of eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, Missouri, northwestern Arkansas, and southern Illinois have appropriate moisture balances (I m between 0 and 40)

14 Working with the Moisture Balance Criterion  In areas that are too dry, target extremely wet sites along rivers, lakes, springs and significant north-facing slopes  In areas that are too wet, target limestone barrens and other drought-prone sites  In areas that are a good match, one can be broader in collecting

15 Too dry I m < 0 0 to 20 20 to 40 Too wet I m > 40

16 Can we find the “right” soils in this region?  Neutral to alkaline, calcareous or saline soils  Thin soils  Poorly draining soils

17 Can we find interesting woody plant populations?  Plants adapted to appropriate soils  Species reaching the northwest edge of their native ranges  Endemic species  Species with attractive aesthetic characteristics

18 Oklahoma Soils  Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils  Apperson, Catoosa, Foraker, Grainola, Labette, Lenapah, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit (mostly silty clay loams)  Thin soils  Shidler, Sogn, Talpa (mixed with limestone)  Poorly drained soils  Choska, Latanier, Lela, Miller, Osage, Wynona (clays)

19 Oklahoma Plants  John E. Williams (1973) Atlas of the woody plants of Oklahoma (QK 155 W55 1973)  Forrest L. Johnson and Bruce W. Hoagland (1999) Catalog of the Woody Plants of Oklahoma htm

20 Arkansas Soils  Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils  Clareson, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit silt loams and silt clays  Thin and rocky soils  Arkana, Elsah, Moko, Sogn, Ventris mostly stony silt loams (often with rock outcrops)  Alluvial soils  Razort silt loam

21 Arkansas Plants  Gary E. Tucker (1976) Guide to the woody flora of Arkansas (QK 153.T84 1976)  Arkansas Biodiversity – The Vascular Flora

22 Missouri Soils  Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils (rocky or thin)  Blueye, Brussels, Cedargap, Gasconade, Hercules, Knobby, Moko  Rock outcrops  Dolomite and other non-cherty limestones  Poorly drained soils  Gasconade, Snead

23 Missouri Plants  Julian Steyermark (1963) Flora of Missouri (being revised and updated by George Yatskievych)

24 Kansas Soils  Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils  Apperson, Catoosa, Kenoma silt loam  Thin and rocky soils  Shidler, Sogn silty and rocky clay loam  Poorly drained soils  Clime, Lanton, Osage, Verdigris, Zaar silty loam and silty clay

25 Kansas Plants  H.A. Stephens (1973) Woody Plants of the North Central Plains  Great Plains Flora Association (1977) Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains

26 Illinois Soils  Neutral to alkaline, some calcareous soils  Bold silt loam, La Hogue loam, Hurst, Sable and Virden silty clay loam  Upland natric (with sodium) soils  Darmstadt, Grantfork, Huey, and Piasa silt loams and silty clay loams  Thin soils  Rare, isolated limestone outcrops in Jackson Co.  Alluvial soils  Ambraw, Beaucoup, Birds, Darwin, Dupo, Lawson, McFain, Nameoki, Tice, Titus, Wakeland

27 Illinois Plants  Works by Robert Mohlenbrock  Series on the Flowering Plants of Illinois  2002 edition of the Vascular Flora of Illinois  Mohlenbrock and Ladd (1978) Distribution of Illinois Vascular Plants  Mohlenbrock and Voigt (1959) A Flora of Southern Illinois

28 Some Potential Target Sites  OK-KS  E ½ of Kay Co., W ½ of Osage Co., W ½ of Chautauqua Co., and all of Cowley Co.  Much of Rogers Co., W Craig Co., E Nowata Co., much of Labette Co., and E Montgomery Co.  Mayes Co. (W side of Lake Hudson and SW of Locust Grove)

29 More Potential Target Sites  AR-MO  W edge of Fulton Co., N ½ of Baxter, Marion, and Boone Cos., SE ¼ of Taney Co., and possibly S ½ of Ozark Co.  W 2/3 of Carroll Co., SE ¼ of Barry Co., and small parts of adjacent Benton and Madison Cos.

30 More Potential Target Sites  MO-IL  Mississippi floodplain from Perry Co. north towards St. Louis and Jackson to Monroe Cos. ( + limestone outcrops in Jackson Co.)  Lower Kaskaskia River and tributaries  Natric soils in E ½ of Madison, Bond, and Clinton Cos. and near Hecker in Randolph and St. Clair Cos.

31 And now a few maps…





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