# 1 Ground Water Basics Porosity Head Hydraulic Conductivity.

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1 Ground Water Basics Porosity Head Hydraulic Conductivity

2 Porosity Basics Porosity n (or  ) Volume of pores is also the total volume – the solids volume

3 Porosity Basics Can re-write that as: Then incorporate: Solid density:  s = M solids /V solids Bulk density:  b = M solids /V total  b  s = V solids /V total

4 Cubic Packings and Porosity http://members.tripod.com/~EppE/images.htm Simple Cubic Body-Centered Cubic Face-Centered Cubic n = 0.48 n = 0. 26 n = 0.26

5 FCC and BCC have same porosity Bottom line for randomly packed beads: n ≈ 0.4 http://uwp.edu/~li/geol200-01/cryschem/ Smith et al. 1929, PR 34:1271-1274

6 Effective Porosity

7

8 Porosity Basics Volumetric water content (  ) –Equals porosity for saturated system

9 Sand and Beads Courtesey C.L. Lin, University of Utah

10 Aquifer Material (Miami Oolite)

11 Aquifer Material Tucson recharge site

12 Aquifer Material X-Ray Tomography

13 Data Set Data and image produced at the High-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography Facility of the University of Texas at Austin Burrow porosity in Miami Limestone barrier bar deposited during the last interglacial (maximum unit thickness ~ 1m) Photo: Mike Wacker/USGS

14 Borehole Televiewer Data New USGS Project Image provided courtesy of A. Manda, Florida International University and the United States Geological Survey.

15 Thresholding

16 3-D Coordinate Extraction Columns map to x,y Rows map to z

17 Omnidirectional Sample Variogram # # One variable definition: # to start the variogram modelling user interface. # data(BH1): '../BH1.dat', x=1, y=2, z=3, v=4; 4 inch diameter Number of pairs Command file

18 Approximate Simple Variogram Model gstat 2.4.1 (12 March 2003), BH1.cmd enter/modify data choose variable : BH1 calculate what : semivariogram cutoff, width : 7.5, 0.1 direction : total variogram model : 0.0639973 Nug(0) + 0.178246 Exp(0.622207) fit method : OLS (unwweighted)

19 Indicator Simulation # # Unconditional Gaussian simulation on a mask # (local neigbourhoods, simple kriging) # # dummy defines empty variable: data(dummy): dummy, sk_mean=0.5,min=20, max=40; # local neighbourhood; variogram(dummy): 0.0639973 Nug(0) + 0.178246 Exp(0.622207); data(): 'grid.dat', x=1, y=2, z = 3; # prediction locations method: is; # Indicator simulation instead of kriging set output = 'is.out'; Need to remove header and extraneous information and sort by layer to run file through MATLAB script for slice generation

20 Use ImageJ for raw volume creation from slice data Visualize with 3dView

21 (Unconditioned) Rock Simulation

22 Aquifer Material (Keys limestone)

23 Aquifer Material (Keys limestone)

24 Bioturbated Aquifer Material

25 Aquifer Material http://www.uta.edu/geology/geol1425earth_system/images/gaia_chapter_5/sedimentary_structures.htm

26 Aquifer Material (CA Coast)

27 Aquifer Material (CA Coast)

28 Aquifer Material (CA Coast)

29 Aquifer Material (CA Coast)

30 (CA Coast)

31 Karst (MN) http://course1.winona.edu/tdogwiler/websitestufftake2/ SE%20Minnesota%20Karst%20Hydro%202003-11-22% 2013-23-14%20014.JPG

32 Karst http://www.fiu.edu/~whitmand/Research_Projects/tm-karst.gif

34 Multiple Choice: Water flows…? Uphill Downhill Something else

35 Pressure Pressure is force per unit area Newton: F = ma –F  force (‘Newtons’ N or kg ms -2 ) –m mass (kg) –a acceleration (ms -2 ) P = F/Area (Nm -2 or kg ms -2 m -2 = kg s -2 m -1 = Pa)

36 Pressure and Pressure Head Pressure relative to atmospheric, so P = 0 at water table P =  gh p –  density –g gravity –h p depth

37 P = 0 (= P atm ) Pressure Head (increases with depth below surface) Pressure Head Elevation Head

38 Elevation Head Water wants to fall Potential energy

43 Discharge Q (volume per time)

44 Darcy’s Law Plot gradient (x-axis) vs. discharge (y-axis) for several imposed gradients Try different materials www.ngwa.org/ ngwef/darcy.html 1803 - 1858

45 Darcy’s Law Should be linear: Q = K dh/dx A where K is the hydraulic conductivity and A is the cross-sectional flow area Slope is K A, so K is slope/A

46 Intrinsic Permeability L T -1 L2L2

47 Kozeny-Carman Equation

48 Beads 80 -120 mesh = 224 -149  m Average size: 186.5  m

49 Observations/Computations Intrinsic permeability? Hydraulic conductivity?

50 Darcy’s Law Q = -KA dh/dl Darcy ‘velocity’: q x = -K x ∂h/∂x Mean pore water velocity: v = q/n e

52 More on gradients Three point problems: h h h 400 m 412 m 100 m

53 More on gradients Three point problems: –(2 equal heads) h = 10m h = 9m 400 m 412 m 100 m CD Gradient = (10m- 9m)/CD CD? –Scale from map –Compute

54 More on gradients Three point problems: –(3 unequal heads) h = 10m h = 11m h = 9m 400 m 412 m 100 m CD Gradient = (10m- 9m)/CD CD? –Scale from map –Compute Best guess for h = 10m