Presentation on theme: "KARST STRUCTURES AND GROUNDWATER FEATURES:. 1. KARST TOPOGRAPHY: limestone, chalk, or gypsum base. Great sinkholes and caverns can form, caves. This."— Presentation transcript:
KARST STRUCTURES AND GROUNDWATER FEATURES:
1. KARST TOPOGRAPHY: limestone, chalk, or gypsum base. Great sinkholes and caverns can form, caves. This type of rock can absorb water well (or have lots of cracks to accept water) and the water dissolves the rock.
basic chemical analysis: H2O + CO2 = H2CO3 water + carbon dioxide in atmosphere = bicarbonate water falling mixes with CO2 to make an acid. The acid mixes with limestone to make soluable bicarbonate (in the water). This forms cave formations like stalactites etc. when the water evaporates. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS:
2)KARST STRUCTURES: from very small to very large
sinkholes- fairly small holes that cave in
Stalactites- ceiling icicle
Stalagmites- ground spike
Rock Pillar-when the two above meet to join into a column of rock
Karst's benefit to man- limestone is primary component in making cement caverns for tourism, Carlsbad NM, Mammoth Caves KT, Horne Lake BC.
Carlsbad Caverns NM:
Mammoth Caves Kt.:
Diagram Karst Structures here:
BASICS OF GROUNDWATER: Zone of aeration: where air pockets in soil are dry Zone of saturation: where air pockets in soil are filled with water Water table: the top of the zone of saturation Where can you find ground water????
3) ARTESIAN WELLS: a porous outcrop (like sandstone) is exposed in a rainy area, and then dips below the surface and is "sandwiched" between two layers of impervious rock (like shale).