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Latest Precambrian / Early Paleozoic Supercontinent Rodinia, centered about the south pole, breaks apart. North America (Laurentia), Baltica, and Siberia.

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Presentation on theme: "Latest Precambrian / Early Paleozoic Supercontinent Rodinia, centered about the south pole, breaks apart. North America (Laurentia), Baltica, and Siberia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Latest Precambrian / Early Paleozoic Supercontinent Rodinia, centered about the south pole, breaks apart. North America (Laurentia), Baltica, and Siberia moved North. Marine Invertebrates. North America: arc on the south. Baltica and Siberia moved in from the SE. Texas (505-570 Ma): Flat plain; remnants of eroded collisional belt (Llano). Shallow marine seas across much of Texas. Sandy sediment onshore, limestone offshore. Trilobites, brachiopods.

2 Latest Precambrian / Early Paleozoic Supercontinent Rodinia continues to break apart. Pieces move north. Fish. Glaciation. North America: Numerous plates and continental blocks move in from the south and east. The Taconic arc collides, forming the Taconic orogeny. Texas 438-505 Ma: Shallow marine seas across much of inland Texas. Warm-water limestone. Corals, brachiopods.

3 Middle / Late Paleozoic Remains of Rodinia (Gondwana) move northward to collide with Laurasia -- creating the super continent Pangaea and the Tethys Ocean. First land-plants. Baltica collides with North America in the Caledonian- Acadian orogeny. Texas 403-438 Ma: Shallow marine seas across much of west Texas - limestone. Corals, brachiopods.

4 Middle / Late Paleozoic Most drifting Rodinia blocks assembled into the super continent of Laurussia. Amphibians. Fish really get going. Ferns. Glaciation. North America: Caledonian- Acadian orogeny marks assemblage of Laurussia. Gondwana closed in from the south. An arc formed along western North America. Texas 360-408 Ma: shallow marine sandstones and limestones in west Texas.

5 Middle / Late Paleozoic Gondwana, with a large, developing glacier, nears southern Laurussia. Fern-forests. North America: The Antler arc collides with western North America creating the Antler orogeny. Texas 320-360 Ma: shallow marine seas inland. Shales and limestones.

6 Middle / Late Paleozoic Rodinia blocks of Laurussia and Siberia collide to form Laurasia. Reptiles. North America: Gondwana collides from the south. The resulting Appalachian, Ouachita, Marathon, Ural, Variscan, and Hercynian orogenies formed some of the largest mountains of all time. The Ancestral Rockies form. Texas 286-320 Ma: Ouachita Mountains. Collision formed inland basins filled by seas. Limestone, sandstone, shale.

7 Latest Paleozoic / Early Mesozoic The supercontinent Pangeae dominates the Permian Earth, lying across the equator. Extinctions! Trilobites go away. North America: A new arc approaches western North America. A new spreading center forms as Cimmeria rifts from Gondwana and opens the Tethyian Ocean. The western fringe of Pangaea lay along the eastern margin of the Pacific "ring of fire” subduction zone. Texas 245-286 Ma: Shallow marine inland of mountains. Reefs. Evaporites. Red shales.

8 Latest Paleozoic / Early Mesozoic Mammals. North America: Arc collision along western edge forms the Sonoman orogeny. As the Tethys Ocean expands, Cimmeria (Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan) move northward towards Laurasia. Texas 208-245 Ma: shales and sandstones in NW. Start opening the GOM - red sandstone, shale, evaporites.

9 Middle Mesozoic Pangaea rotates; different components at different rates / in different directions -- rifts form. Birds. North America: Southern North Atlantic Ocean opens, continuing west into the Gulf of Mexico. The Cordilleran arc develops along Pacific margin. Arc forms on western side. Nevadan orogeny begins. Cimmeria begins collision with Laurasia - Cimmerian orogeny. Texas 144-208 Ma: Change in sediment direction. Shallow water deposition / evaporites in GOM.

10 Middle Mesozoic The Atlantic continues to expand as Pangaea breaks up. The Cimmerian orogeny continues. North America: Arcs and micro continents slam into western region. Laramide orogeny in Rockies. Texas 66-144 Ma: Influx of sediment from Rockies. Shallow Cretaceous sea way across Texas. Shallow liestones, shales.

11 Late Cretaceous / Present Rifts separate Africa and South America and then India, Australia, Antarctica. North America rifts from Europe. Old Gondwana lands(Africa, India, Australia) move north toward Eurasia, closing the Tethys Ocean and forming the Alpine-Himalayan mountains. The Atlantic lengthens / widens, the Sevier orogeny continues, and the Caribbean arc forms. Texas 65-144 Ma: continuing shallow limestone and shale deposition to the southeast (from Rockies).

12 Paleocene / Eocene Himalayan Orogeny. Alps and Pyrenees form. The modern patterns of Planet Earth appear. Atlantic continues to open. Rocky Mountains grow. Texas 65 - 35 Ma: shale and sandstone in southeast region prograde shoreline (from the Rockies). Volcanic activity in Panhandle.

13 Oligocene and Miocene Orogeny continues in the Mediterranean region and India nears its junction with southern Asia. Antarctica isolated. Southwestern North America intercepts the East Pacific Rise and a great extensional event, the Basin and Range orogeny begins. Texas 35-5 Ma: continued sandstone/shale deposition and progradation of shoreline (erosion of Rockies)

14 Present Note: Best data set available.

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