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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 39 KS4 Chemistry Useful Rocks
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 39 Useful Rocks Uses of the products of salt Uses of limestone The rock cycle Summary activities Extraction and electrolysis of salt Contents
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 39 The rock cycle
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 39 Useful Rocks Uses of the products of salt Uses of limestone The rock cycle Summary activities Extraction and electrolysis of salt Contents
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 39 Three-quarters of the salt we use comes from rock salt. As the earth’s surface changed stretches of sea-water became landlocked. Evaporation of this water along with further geological changes led to deposits of rock salt in many countries including the UK. Rock salt
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 39 Cl 2 2Cl - - + 2e- Chlorine gas is formed Negative ions Salt consists of sodium ions (Na + ) and chloride ions (Cl - ). Chloride ions go to the anode where they lose an electron The neutral chlorine atoms produced join up into pairs Electrolysis of salt (1)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 39 Positive ions Na + are not the only + ions present. There are also H+ ions because some water molecules split up into H + and OH - ions. H + accepts electrons more easily than Na + does. This has important consequences at the cathode. Na+ Cl- H H O H O- H+ Electrolysis of salt (2)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 39 do notNa + ions move to the cathode but do not accept electrons. It is the hydrogen ions that gain electrons As a result hydrogen gas is formed at the cathode. 2H + + 2e- H 2 Electrolysis of salt (3)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 39 Na+ Cl- H O- H+ Changed into chlorine gas at anode Changed into hydrogen gas at cathode No change “Spectator ion” What happens to the various ions? Electrolysis of salt (4)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 39 Sodium hydroxide is what is left in the solution at the end of electrolysis Na+ Cl- H O- H+ Na+ H O- Cl H H Solution Electrodes Electrolysis of salt (5)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 39 Some salt is dug out of underground deposits of rock salt but most salt is obtained by pumping river water into the salt deposits which may be about 2000m below ground. The salt dissolves to form a solution called brine which travels up a second pipe to the surface. It is then stored in a brine reservoir prior to being used for various purposes. 1.Name one important winter use of solid rock-salt. 2.Draw a diagram illustrating the production of brine and its subsequent electrolysis. 3.Draw a diagram showing how you could remove the gritty impurities in rock-salt in the laboratory. Questions about salt
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 39 1.An important winter use of solid rock-salt is to treat icy roads. 2.Diagram of brine production to electrolysis. River pump Rock Salt dissolves 2000m Dissolved salt. up to surface Brine +- Electrolysis Cell Chlorine gas Hydrogen gas Sodium Hydroxide Answers about salt (1)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 39 1.Removal of gritty impurities from Rock Salt Residue: Gritty impurities Filtrate: brine Filter paper Filter funnel Conical flask Answers about salt (2)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 39 Useful Rocks Uses of the products of salt Uses of limestone The rock cycle Summary activities Extraction and electrolysis of salt Contents
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 39 Sodium chloride ‘rock salt’ solution electrolysis Chlorine gas Bleaching agent, e.g. paper industry Sterilisation of water e.g. swimming pools and drinking water Uses of chlorine (1)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 39 Sodium chloride ‘rock salt’ solution electrolysis Chlorine gas Bleaching agent, e.g. paper industry Sterilisation of water e.g. swimming pools and drinking water continued Manufacture of HCl Manufacture of Cl-containing organic chemicals Uses of chlorine (2)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 39 Manufacture of HCl Manufacture of PVC and other plastics Uses of chlorine (3)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 18 of 39 Manufacture of Cl-containing organic chemicals Pesticides Solvents, e.g. solvent for tippex, & ‘dry cleaning’ dyes Manufacture of HCl Manufacture of PVC and other plastics Uses of chlorine (4)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 39 Sodium chloride ‘rock salt’ solution electrolysis Sodium hydroxide Manufacture of soap Manufacture of Paper Extraction of aluminium Uses of sodium hydroxide (1)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 20 of 39 Sodium chloride ‘rock salt’ solution electrolysis Sodium hydroxide solution Extraction of aluminium Manufacture of soap Manufacture of Paper Textiles (wool, cotton) Uses of sodium hydroxide (2)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 21 of 39 Sodium chloride ‘rock salt’ solution electrolysis Sodium hydroxide solution Extraction of aluminium Manufacture of soap Manufacture of paper Neutralization of acid effluents Textiles (wool, cotton) Uses of sodium hydroxide (3)
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 22 of 39 Join the appropriate substances with arrows. chlorine hydrogen Sodium hydroxide salt Hydrochloric acid pvc soap bleach Organic chlorides Aluminium extraction dyes Acid neutralization Uses of products from salt
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 23 of 39 Useful Rocks Uses of the products of salt Uses of limestone The rock cycle Summary activities Extraction and electrolysis of salt Contents
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 24 of 39 Limestone is a sedimentary rock. It comes from the shells of sea creatures or from solids formed in the oceans long ago. It is mostly made of calcium carbonate - CaCO 3. It is an important raw material for both the chemical and the construction industries. Limestone
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 25 of 39 It is capable of neutralising acids but because it is insoluble in water it does so without ever making the solution strongly alkaline. Carbonates fizz (effervesce) when they react with acids. Limestone is a base with the formula CaCO 3. 1214131211109876543 Neutralizes acid - without the need for strong alkali Limestone as a base
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 26 of 39 During indigestion the stomach may produce too much (excess) acid. Indigestion tablets neutralise some of this acid. These tablets often contain purified calcium carbonate. Limestone is a base with the formula CaCO 3. 2HCl + CaCO 3 CaCl 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 Limestone for stomachs!
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 27 of 39 Acidity can build up in soils. This can inhibit the growth of many crops. Consequently farmers need to adjust the pH back towards neutral. Limestone provides a cheap way of neutralising soil acidity. Limestone is used in agriculture. 765 pH Limestone for soil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 28 of 39 Limestone is one of three major raw materials used to extract iron from its ores. It reacts with acidic impurities changing them into a slag that separates from the iron. In the blast furnace limestone removes acidic earthy impurities that would ruin the quality of iron. CaCO 3 + SiO 2 CaSiO 3 + CO 2 Limestone – extraction of iron
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 29 of 39 Limestone is heated in huge ovens known as lime kilns. The calcium carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide. Quicklime is a vital ingredient of cement, concrete and of most types of glass. CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Quicklime – the limekiln
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 30 of 39 Limekiln Calcium oxide is made industrially in a limekiln. hot air calcium carbonate (limestone) calcium oxide (lime) waste air and carbon dioxide 1,500 °C
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 31 of 39 If water is added to quicklime the calcium oxide changes into calcium hydroxide (slaked lime). Slaked lime is a vital ingredient of various building materials. CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 A solution of calcium hydroxide (limewater) is also used to test for carbon dioxide gas (it goes cloudy). Slaked lime
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 32 of 39 The main raw materials for cement are limestone and clay. A small amount of gypsum is also added to help the cement set at the right speed. Clay or shale Limestone or chalk Gypsum (calcium sulphate) heat Cement Manufacture of cement
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 33 of 39 To make concrete cement is mixed with small stones or gravel. Mortar consists of cement mixed with calcium hydroxide. This makes a smooth slow setting mixture suitable for bricklaying Cement, concrete and mortar all set when interlocking crystals grow between cement particles joining them together. Cement, concrete and mortar
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 34 of 39 Limestone, sand and sodium carbonate are the raw materials used to make most glass. Limestone Lime (calcium hydroxide) Sand (silicon dioxide) Sodium carbonate heat water Glass heat Manufacture of glass
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 35 of 39 Limestone for indigestion Iron Manufacture Slaking of lime Manufacture of quicklime CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 CaCO 3 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + H 2 O +CO 2 CaCO 3 + SiO 2 CaSiO 3 + CO 2 Join matching pairs with arrows. Uses of limestone
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 36 of 39 Useful Rocks Uses of the products of salt Uses of limestone The rock cycle Summary activities Extraction and electrolysis of salt Contents
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 37 of 39 Glossary brine – A strong solution of salt, especially sodium chloride. electrolysis – The process in which an electric current is passed through sodium chloride solution to produce chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. limestone – A sedimentary rock containing mainly calcium carbonate. quicklime – Calcium oxide. Produced by heating limestone in a limekiln. rock cycle – A series of processes that cause rocks to change from one type to another. rock salt – Naturally-occurring crystalized sodium chloride.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 38 of 39 Anagrams
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