Presentation on theme: "TECHNIQUES WITHOUT USING EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES"— Presentation transcript:
1TECHNIQUES WITHOUT USING EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES Process ChangeWind, Geothermal, Hydroelectric, or Solar Unit instead of Fossil fired Unit.Change in Fuele.g. Use of Low Sulfur Fuel, instead of High Sulfur fuel.Good Operating PracticesGood HousekeepingMaintenancePlant Shutdown
2COMMONLY USED METHODS FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL PARTICULATECyclonesElectrostatic PrecipitatorsFabric FilterWet ScrubbersGASESAdsorption TowersThermal IncernationCatalytic Combustion
4GENERAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF SO2 EMISSIONS Change to Low Sulfur FuelNatural GasLiquefied Natural GasLow Sulfur OilLow Sulfur CoalUse Desulfurized Coal and Oil Increase Effective Stack HeightBuild Tall StacksRedistribution of Stack Gas Velocity ProfileModification of Plume Buoyancy
5GENERAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF SO2 EMISSIONS (contd.) Use Flue Gas Desulfurization SystemsUse Alternative Energy Sources, such as Hydro-Poweror Nuclear-Power
6FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SO2 scrubbing, or Flue Gas Desulfurization processes can be classified as:Throwaway or Regenerative, depending upon whether the recovered sulfur is discarded or recycled.Wet or Dry, depending upon whether the scrubber is a liquid or a solid.Flue Gas Desulfurization ProcessesThe major flue gas desulfurization ( FGD ), processes are :Limestone ScrubbingLime ScrubbingDual Alkali ProcessesLime Spray DryingWellman-Lord Process
7LIMESTONE SCRUBBINGLimestone slurry is sprayed on the incoming flue gas. The sulfur dioxide gets absorbed The limestone and the sulfur dioxide react as follows :CaCO3 + H2O + 2SO2 ----> Ca+2 + 2HSO3-+ CO2CaCO3 + 2HSO3-+ Ca > 2CaSO3 + CO2 + H2O
8CaO + H2O -----> Ca(OH)2 SO2 + H2O <----> H2SO3 LIME SCRUBBINGThe equipment and the processes are similar to those in limestone scrubbing Lime Scrubbing offers better utilization of the reagent. The operation is more flexible. The major disadvantage is the high cost of lime compared to limestone.The reactions occurring during lime scrubbing are :CaO + H2O -----> Ca(OH)2SO2 + H2O <----> H2SO3H2SO3 + Ca(OH) > CaSO3.2 H2OCaSO3.2 H2O + (1/2)O > CaSO4.2 H2O
9DUAL ALKALI SYSTEMLime and Limestone scrubbing lead to deposits inside spray tower.The deposits can lead to plugging of the nozzles through which the scrubbing slurry is sprayed.The Dual Alkali system uses two regents to remove the sulfur dioxide.Sodium sulfite / Sodium hydroxide are used for the absorption of sulfur dioxide inside the spray chamber.The resulting sodium salts are soluble in water,so no deposits are formed.The spray water is treated with lime or limestone, along with make-up sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.The sulfite / sulfate ions are precipitated, and the sodium hydroxide is regenerated.
10LIME - SPRAY DRYING Lime Slurry is sprayed into the chamber The sulfur dioxide is absorbed by the slurryThe liquid-to-gas ratio is maintained such that the spray dries before it reaches the bottom of the chamberThe dry solids are carried out with the gas, and are collected in fabric filtration unitThis system needs lower maintenance, lower capital costs, and lower energy usage
11This process consists of the following subprocesses: WELLMAN - LORD PROCESSThis process consists of the following subprocesses:Flue gas pre-treatment.Sulfur dioxide absorption by sodium sulfitePurge treatmentSodium sulfite regeneration.The concentrated sulfur dioxide stream is processed to a marketable product.The flue gas is pre - treated to remove the particulate. The sodium sulfite neutralizes the sulfur dioxide :Na2SO3 + SO2 + H2O -----> 2NaHSO3
12WELLMAN - LORD PROCESS (contd.) Some of the Na2SO3 reacts with O2 and the SO3 present in the flue gas to form Na2SO4 and NaHSO3.Sodium sulfate does not help in the removal of sulfur dioxide, and is removed. Part of the bisulfate stream is chilled to precipitate the remaining bisulfate. The remaining bisulfate stream is evaporated to release the sulfur dioxide, and regenerate the bisulfite.
14BACKGROUND ON NITROGEN OXIDES There are seven known oxides of nitrogen :NONO2NO3N2ON2O3N2O4N2O5NO and NO2 are the most common of the seven oxides listed above. NOx released from stationary sources is of two types
15GENERAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF NOx EMISSIONS NOx control can be achieved by:Fuel DenitrogenationCombustion ModificationModification of operating conditionsTail-end control equipmentSelective Catalytic ReductionSelective Non - Catalytic ReductionElectron Beam RadiationStaged Combustion
16FUEL DENITROGENATIONOne approach of fuel denitrogenation is to remove a large part of the nitrogen contained in the fuels. Nitrogen is removed from liquid fuels by mixing the fuels with hydrogen gas, heating the mixture and using a catalyst to cause nitrogen in the fuel and gaseous hydrogen to unite. This produces ammonia and cleaner fuel.This technology can reduce the nitrogen contained in both naturally occurring and synthetic fuels.
17COMBUSTION MODIFICATION Combustion control uses one of the following strategies:Reduce peak temperatures of the flame zone. The methods are :increase the rate of flame coolingdecrease the adiabatic flame temperature by dilutionReduce residence time in the flame zone. For this we,change the shape of the flame zoneReduce Oxygen concentration in the flame one. This can be accomplished by:decreasing the excess aircontrolled mixing of fuel and airusing a fuel rich primary flame zone
18MODIFICATION OF OPERATING CONDITIONS The operating conditions can be modified to achieve significant reductions in the rate of thermal NOx production. the various methods are:Low-excess firingOff-stoichiometric combustion ( staged combustion )Flue gas recirculationReduced air preheatReduced firing ratesWater Injection
19TAIL-END CONTROL PROCESSES Combustion modification and modification of operating conditions provide significant reductions in NOx, but not enough to meet regulations.For further reduction in emissions, tail-end control equipment is required.Some of the control processes are:Selective Catalytic ReductionSelective Non-catalytic ReductionElectron Beam RadiationStaged Combustion
20SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION ( SCR ) In this process, the nitrogen oxides in the flue gases are reduced to nitrogenDuring this process, only the NOx species are reducedNH3 is used as a reducing gasThe catalyst is a combination of titanium and vanadium oxides. The reactions are given below :4 NO + 4 NH3 + O > 4N2 + 6H2O2NO2 + 4 NH3+ O > 3N2 + 6H2OSelective catalytic reduction catalyst is best at around 300 too 400 oC.Typical efficiencies are around 80 %
21ELECTRON BEAM RADIATION This treatment process is under development, and is not widely used. Work is underway to determine the feasibility of electron beam radiation for neutralizing hazardous wastes and air toxics.Irradiation of flue gases containing NOx or SOx produce nitrate and sulfate ions.The addition of water and ammonia produces NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4The solids are removed from the gas, and are sold as fertilizers.
22STAGED COMBUSTION PRINCIPLE Initially, less air is supplied to bring about incomplete combustionNitrogen is not oxidized. Carbon particles and CO are released.In the second stage, more air is supplied to complete the combustion of carbon and carbon monoxide.30% to 50% reductions in NOx emissions are achieved.
24GENERAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF CO EMISSIONS Control carbon monoxide formation.Note : CO & NOx control strategies are in conflict.Stationary SourcesProper DesignInstallationOperationMaintenanceProcess IndustriesBurn in furnaces or waste heat boilers.
25FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE Due to insufficient oxygenFactors affecting Carbon monoxide formation:fuel-air ratiodegree of mixingtemperature
27GENERAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS Five Basic Types of Dust Collectors :Gravity and Momentum collectorssettling chambers, louvers, baffle chambersCentrifugal Collectorscyclonesmechanical centrifugal collectorsFabric Filtersbaghousesfabric collectors
28GENERAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS (contd.) Electrostatic PrecipitatorstubularplatewetdryWet Collectorsspray towersimpingement scrubberswet cyclonespeaked towersmobile bed scrubbers
30INDUSTRIAL SOURCES OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS Iron & Steel Mills, the blast furnaces, steel making furnaces.Petroleum Refineries, the catalyst regenerators, air-blown asphalt stills, and sludge burners.Portland cement industryAsphalt batching plantsProduction of sulfuric acidProduction of phosphoric acidSoap and Synthetic detergent manufacturingGlass & glass fiber industryInstant coffee plants
31EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS Primary EffectsReduction of visibilitysize distribution and refractive index of the particlesdirect absorption of light by particlesdirect light scattering by particles150 micro g / m3 concentration ~ average visibility of 5 miles( satisfactory for air and ground transportation )Soiling of nuisanceincrease cost of building maintenance, cleaning of furnishings, and householdsthreshold limit is micro g / m3 ( dust )levels of micro g / m3 considered as nuisance
32CYCLONESPrincipleThe particles are removed by the application of a centrifugal force. The polluted gas stream is forced into a vortex. the motion of the gas exerts a centrifugal force on the particles, and they get deposited on the inner surface of the cyclonesConstruction and OperationThe gas enters through the inlet, and is forced into a spiral.At the bottom, the gas reverses direction and flows upwards.To prevent particles in the incoming stream from contaminating the clean gas, a vortex finder is provided to separate them. the cleaned gas flows out through the vortex finder..
33CYCLONES (contd.) Advantages of Cyclones Cyclones have a lost capital costReasonable high efficiency for specially designed cyclones.They can be used under almost any operating condition.Cyclones can be constructed of a wide variety of materials.There are no moving parts, so there are no maintenance requirements.Disadvantages of CyclonesThey can be used for small particlesHigh pressure drops contribute to increased costs of operation.
34Advantages of Fabric Filters PrincipleThe filters retain particles larger than the mesh sizeAir and most of the smaller particles flow through. Some of the smaller particles are retained due to interception and diffusion.The retained particles cause a reduction in the mesh size.The primary collection is on the layer of previously deposited particlesAdvantages of Fabric FiltersVery high collection efficiencyThey can operate over a wide range of volumetric flow ratesThe pressure drops are reasonably low.Fabric Filter houses are modular in design, and can be pre-assembled at the factory
35FABRIC FILTERS (contd.) Disadvantages of Fabric FiltersFabric Filters require a large floor area.The fabric is damaged at high temperature.Ordinary fabrics cannot handle corrosive gases.Fabric Filters cannot handle moist gas streamsA fabric filtration unit is a potential fire hazard
36ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR PrincipleThe particles in a polluted gas stream are charged by passing them through an electric field.The charged particles are led through collector platesThe collector plates carry charges opposite to that on the particlesThe particles are attracted to these collector plates and are thus removed from the gas steamConstruction and Operation of Electrostatic PrecipitatorCharging Electrodes in the form of thin wires are placed in the path of the influent gas.The charging electrodes generate a strong electric field, which charges the particles as they flow through it.The collector plates get deposited with the particles. the particles are occasionally removed either by rapping or by washing the collector plates.
37ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR (contd.) Advantages of Electrostatic PrecipitatorsElectrostatic precipitators are capable very high efficiency, generally of the order of %.Since the electrostatic precipitators act on the particles and not on the air, they can handle higher loads with lower pressure drops.They can operate at higher temperatures.The operating costs are generally low.Disadvantages of Electrostatic PrecipitatorsThe initial capital costs are high.Although they can be designed for a variety of operating conditions, they are not very flexible to changes in the operating conditions, once installed.Particulate with high resistivity may go uncollected.
38Construction and Operation WET SCRUBBERSPrincipleWet scrubbers are used for removal of particles which have a diameter of the order of 0.2 mm or higher.Wet scrubbers work by spraying a stream of fine liquid droplets on the incoming stream.The droplets capture the particlesThe liquid is subsequently removed for treatment.Construction and OperationA wet scrubber consists of a rectangular or circular chamber in which nozzles are mounted.The nozzles spray a stream of droplets on the incoming gas streamThe droplets contact the particulate matter, and the particles get sorbed.The droplet size has to be optimized.
39WET SCRUBBERS (contd.) Construction and Operation (contd.) Smaller droplets provide better cleaning, but are more difficult to remove from the cleaned stream.The polluted spray is collected.Particles are settled out or otherwise removed from the liquid.The liquid is recycled.Wet scrubbers are also used for the removal of gases from the air streams.
40Disadvantages of Wet Scrubbers WET SCRUBBERS (contd.)Advantages of Wet ScrubbersWet Scrubbers can handle incoming streams at high temperature, thus removing the need for temperature control equipment.Wet scrubbers can handle high particle loading.Loading fluctuations do not affect the removal efficiency.They can handle explosive gases with little risk.Gas adsorption and dust collection are handled in one unit.Corrosive gases and dusts are neutralized.Disadvantages of Wet ScrubbersHigh potential for corrosive problemsEffluent scrubbing liquid poses a water pollution problem.
41CYCLONE SPRAY CHAMBERS These scrubbers combine a cyclone with a spray nozzle.The added centrifugal force permits good separation of the droplets, hence a smaller droplet size can be used.Cyclone spray chambers provide up to 95% removal of particles > 5 micron.
42ORIFICE SCRUBBERSThe gas is impacted onto a layer of the scrubbing liquid.The gas passes through the liquid, thus removing almost all the particulate matter, and a large portion of the probable gases.After coming out of the liquid, the gas is passed through baffles to remove the liquid droplets.
43IMPINGEMENT SCRUBBERS In Impingement scrubbers, the gas impacts a layer of liquid/froth through a perforated tray.Passing through this layer removes the particulate matter.The wet gas stream is then passed through a mist collector.
44VENTURI SCRUBBERSThe dirty gas is led in to the chamber at high inlet velocities.At the inlet throat, liquid at low pressure is added to the gas streamThis increases the relative velocity between the gas and the droplets, thus increasing the efficiency of removal.Efficiencies of the range of 95% for particles larger than 0.2 mm have been obtained.
46GENERAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS Incineration or after burningDirect flame incinerationThermal incinerationCatalytic incineration
47CxHy + ( x + y/4 ) O2 x CO2 + (y/2) H2O VOC INCINERATORSPrincipleVOC incinerators thermally oxidize the effluent stream, in the presence of excess air.The complete oxidation of the VOC results in the formation of carbon monoxide and water. The reaction proceeds as follows:CxHy + ( x + y/4 ) O2 x CO2 + (y/2) H2OOperationThe most important parameters in the design and operation of an incineration system are what are called the' three T's ' Temperature, Turbulence, and residence Time.
48VOC INCINERATORS (contd.) TemperatureThe reaction kinetics are very sensitive to temperatureThe higher the temperature, the faster the reactionTimingA certain time has to be provided for the reaction to proceedTurbulenceTurbulence promotes mixing between the VOC's and oxygenProper mixing helps the reaction to proceed to completion in the given time.
49VOC INCINERATORS (contd.) The various methods for incineration are:Elevated fires, for concentrated streamsDirect thermal oxidation, for dilute streamsCatalytic oxidation, for dilute streams.
51AIR POLLUTION CONTROL FOR GASES Adsorption TowersThermal IncernationCatalytic Combustion
52Principle ADSORPTION TOWERS Adsorption towers use adsorbents to remove the impurities from the gas stream.The impurities bind either physically or chemically to the adsorbing material.The impurities can be recovered by regenerating the adsorbent.Adsorption towers can remove low concentrations of impurities from the flue gas stream.
53ADSORPTION TOWERS (contd.) Construction and OperationAdsorption towers consist of cylinders packed with the adsorbent.The adsorbent is supported on a heavy screenSince adsorption is temperature dependent, the flue gas is temperature conditioned.Vapor monitors are provided to detect for large concentrations in the effluent. Large concentrations of the pollutant in the effluent indicate that the adsorbent needs to be regenerated.Advantages of Adsorption TowersVery low concentrations of pollutants can be removed.Energy consumption is low.Do not need much maintenance.Economically valuable material can be recovered during regeneration.
54ADSORPTION TOWERS (contd.) Disadvantages of adsorption TowersOperation is not continuous.They can only be used for specific pollutants.Extensive temperature pre-conditioning equipment to be installed.Despite regeneration, the capacity of the adsorbent decreases with use.