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Module 21 WATER RESOURCES AND USE On completion of this module you should be able to understand the Origin and application of water resources Distribution.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 21 WATER RESOURCES AND USE On completion of this module you should be able to understand the Origin and application of water resources Distribution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 21 WATER RESOURCES AND USE On completion of this module you should be able to understand the Origin and application of water resources Distribution of global water Uniqueness of water in Australia and its water demand Components of a water supply system

2 Module 22 Water in the Ancient World Water is fundamental to life Water is used not only for drinking but power, transport and irrigation Ancient civilisations thrived where water was abundant or people learned to harness it

3 Module 23 Water in the Ancient World

4 Module 24 Waterwheel on the Rio Guadalquivir, Cordoba (circa 1000 AD)

5 Module 25 World Water Crisis Water is life’s most precious resource An estimated 1.4 billion people lack safe water 3.3 billion cases of illness and 5.3 million deaths per year 2/3 of humanity will face shortages in 2025 Knowledge is central to improve global water supply

6 Module 26 World Water Crisis 2.2 million people die each year from diseases such as cholera and dysentery caused by contaminated water (Klaus Toepfer, Head of United Nations Environment Program). Efforts to halve the number of people worldwide living in poverty by 2015 will fail unless access to clean water is radically improved Without adequate clean water, there can be no escape from poverty

7 Module 27 World Water Crisis The Aral Sea once the area of Ireland is a quarter the size owing to excessive water abstraction

8 Module 28 World Water Crisis Rusting hulls of ships once on the Aral Sea

9 Module 29 Distribution of Global Water

10 Module 210 Global Water and Population LocationPopulationWater resources Asia60%36% Europe12%8% Africa13%11% North & Central America8%15% South America6%25% Oceania1%5% World population 6.1 billion in 2001 Expect to stabilise to 9.3 billion in mid 21st century

11 Module 211

12 Module 212 Comparison of World’s Drainage Systems

13 Module 213 Uniqueness of Australian Water Resources Average annual precipitation is 465 mm of which 10% appears as runoff Average annual world precipitation is 860 mm Wide disparity in temporal and spatial distribution

14 Module 214 Queensland’s Major Drainage Systems

15 Module 215 Wide disparity in temporal distribution

16 Module 216 Wide disparity in temporal distribution

17 Module 217 Wide disparity in temporal distribution

18 Module 218 Interruptions to the Hydrologic Cycle Becoming a less natural system owing to human intervention There are technological, social and political impacts Water abstraction transcends geographical and national boundaries

19 Module 219 Australian Water Use Irrigation 74% Rural purposes 8% Urban and industrial usage 18% Primary resources are ground and surface water

20 Module 220 Ground Water Ground water represents 23.5% of global freshwater Small development cost Negligible evapotranspiration losses Reduced alienation of productive land Consistent water quality

21 Module 221 Ground Water has some disadvantages High pump energy cost Variation in standing water level High dissolved solids and minerals Corrosion and encrustation of pipes May not be suitable for human and industrial uses

22 Module 222 A typical bore well

23 Module 223 Aquifer Types Fractured metamorphic rocks Consolidated sedimentary rocks Unconsolidated sediments

24 Module 224 Potential to use aquifer to treat, store and recover recycled water (source: The Weekend Australian July 6 – 7, p.18)

25 Module 225 Surface Water Quality and quantity are highly variable Subject to changing land use and evaporation Runoff and precipitates may add significant contaminants

26 Module 226 Urban Water Demand Residential use constitutes 40 - 60% Commercial use Industry use Public use Loss

27 Module 227 Factors Affecting Demand

28 Module 228 Fluctuations in Demand Diurnal flows Seasonal flows Maximum:minimum flows will depend on population mix

29 Module 229 Ratio Peak:Average Flow Against Population

30 Module 230 Factors that Influence the Design Flow Average daily demand (ADD) Mean day of the maximum month (MDMM = 1.5 x ADD) Peak day (PD = 1.5 x MDMM) Peak hour (PH = PD/12) Note that the Guidelines for Planning and Design Urban Water Supply Schemes is now replaced by the Planning Guidelines for Water Supply and Sewerage, 2005, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland, and some of the above equations are no longer used.

31 Module 231 Queensland average flows 400 L/c.d in SE Queensland 800 L/c.d in northern coastal towns 1500 L/c.d in dry western areas

32 Module 232 Population Factors Birth rates Death rates Migration National economy

33 Module 233 Population Estimation Methods Arithmetic progression Geometric progression Decreasing rate of increase Logistic curves Graphical interpolation, extrapolation Graphical comparison

34 Module 234 A Water Supply System Source - surface, ground or combination Extraction facilities - intake structures, pumps Conveyance system - trunk mains, channels Water treatment to achieve quality Distribution system - storage, supply mains and reticulation

35 Module 235 A typical water supply system

36 Module 236 Dam Water Storage Revelstoke Dam British Columbia

37 Module 237 An Intake Structure

38 Module 238 An Intake Structure (Perseverance)

39 Module 239 A Small Intake Structure

40 Module 240 Dam Water Storage The Brisbane Courier Mail (June 2001) reported on potential taste problems for Gold Coast residents Blue-green algae blooms in Hinze Dam were reportedly being controlled by carbon filtering but an anticipated turn-over from predicted cold weather could create new problems Thermal pollution, blockage of fish passages are shown to be the biggest causes of biodiversity loss in the Murray-Darling Basin river system

41 Module 241 Long Term Problems in Water The Daily Telegraph (9 June, 2001 p 11) reported that a 1999 University of Technology Sydney study concluded that hormones in sewage waste could be changing the morphology of fish in South Creek (which flows to the Hawkesbury River at Windsor). The study found that fins crucial to the fertility and sexual function of mosquito fish - an introduced species-- had shrunk or were found to be smaller in specimens found downstream of St Mary’s sewage treatment plant. The implications are that "gender bender" substances I.e. reproductive endocrine disrupters (REDS) such as birth control pills, antibiotics, industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides are present in our waterways and causing the effects.

42 Module 242 END OF MODULE 2

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