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HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BİLİM VE TEKNOLOJİ TARİHİ By Prof.Dr. Zekai Sen د. ذكاى زكريا رجب شن İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ İSTANBUL TECHNICAL.

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Presentation on theme: "HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BİLİM VE TEKNOLOJİ TARİHİ By Prof.Dr. Zekai Sen د. ذكاى زكريا رجب شن İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ İSTANBUL TECHNICAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BİLİM VE TEKNOLOJİ TARİHİ By Prof.Dr. Zekai Sen د. ذكاى زكريا رجب شن İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ İSTANBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY SU VAKFI TURKISH WATER FOUNDATION

2 Reality search?, Systematic arrangement?, Random intake but systematic output?, etc. هل هو بحث الحقيقة ؟, تخطيط منهجي ؟, دخلة عشوائي ولكن خروج نظامي ؟, WHAT IS SCIENCE ? ما هو العلم ؟ WHAT ARE SCIENTIFIC BASIS? ما هى الاساس العلمية ؟ Material ( مادة ) Space (Geometry) ( كون – الهندسة ) Time ( زمن ) Variation ( تغيير )

3 WHAT ARE SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA ? ما هى معيار العلمية؟ Phenomenological (ظاهرة طبيعية) Logical foundation (اسوس منطقية او معقولة ) General deductions (استنتاج العامة ؟) Objectivity (موضوعية) Testability (اختباري) Selectivity (انتقائي) Falsification (تزييف, تكذيب)

4 WHICH CIVILIZATIONS ENHANCED SCIENCE ? ما هى الحضارات مدعومة العلم ؟ Mesopotamian (Babylon, Assyrian) مسزبوتاميا (بلاد بين النهرين) (بابل, اسور Egyptian (مصر) Indian (هند) Old Greek (يونان القديم) ISLAMIC (اسلام) West (غرب)

5 WHY SCIENCE REVIVED WITH ISLAM ? ما هو سبب التجديد العلم فى الاسلام ؟ Qur’an (قران) Hadith (حديث) Humanity (انسانية)

6 WHO ARE THE MOST SIGNIFICANT MUSLIM SCIENTISTS ? من هم اهم العلماء المسلمين ؟ Al Farabi(870-950 ) (Ara Ahl al-Madina al-Fadila) أراء اهل المدينة الفاضلة (lhsa al 'Ulum) إحصاء العلوم (Fusus al-Hikam)فصوص الحكم Abu Raihan al-Biruni(973-1048 ) (Kitab al-Tafhim) كتاب التفهيم (Kitab al-Jawahir ) كتاب الجواهر (Kitab Tahdid Nihayat al-Amakin) تحديد نهاية الأماكن Ibn Sina (980-1037 ) (Qanun at-Tib)قانون الطب (As-Shifa) الشفاء Omar al-Khayyam (1048-1131) (Tariq-al-Jalali)طريق الجلالي

7 Al-Khwarizmi (790-840) (Al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al- Muqabilah)المقالة في حساب الجبر والمقابلة Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr (1091-1161) (Kitab al-Iqtisad fi Islah al-Anfus wa al- Ajsad ) الاقتصاد في اصلاح الأنفس والأجساد

8 WHO ARE THE MOST SIGNIFICANT MUSLIM SCIENTISTS ? Al-Idrisi (1099-1166) (al-Jami-li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabatat)الجامع لصفات اشتات النباتات (Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al-Afaq)نزهة المشتاق في اختراق الآفاق Ibn Rushd (1128-1198) (Thafut at-Tahafut)تهافت التهافت (fi-Harakat al-Falak) حركة الفلك Abu Hamid al-Gazali (1058-1128) (Ihya al-'Ulum al-Din)إحياء علوم الدين (Tuhafut al-Falasifa)تهافت الفلاسفة

9 Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) (al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al- Mufrada) الجامع في الأدوية المفردة Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) (al-Tadhkira fi'ilm al-hay'a) التذكرة في علم الهيئة Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) (Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb) الشامل في الطب al-Mukhtar fi al-Aghdhiya) المختار في الأغذية Ibn Khaldun(1332-1395) (Muqaddimah) المقدمة Ibn al-Haitham(Died 803) (al-Manazir) المناظر El Zahrawi (940-1013)Father of surgery (Al-Tasrif) التصريف

10 WHAT ARE THE MAJOR TOPICS OF MUSLIM CONTRIBUTIONS ما هي مجالات العلمية فيها مساهمة من قبل علماء المسلمين ؟ Chemistry (الكيمياء) Jabir bin Hayyan Algebra(الجبر)Al Khawarizmi Astronomy (الهية) Al Tusi€€€€ Physics(الفيزياء)Ibn Haithem Geography (الجغرافيا) Al Idrisi Philosophy (الفلسفة) Ibn Rushd Logic(المنطق)Al Farabi

11 Traveller(السياحة)Ibn Battuta Sociology (علم المجتمعة) Ibn Khaldun Medicine (الطب)Ibn Sina Geology(علوم الارض)Al Biruni Pharmacy (الصيدلية) Al Biruni Trigonometry (علم المثلثات) Al-Battani Physiology (علم النفس) Al Ghazali

12 AL-BIRUNI His book, تحديد نهاية الأماكن كتاب Kitab Tahdid Nihayat al-Amakin (Determining the Coordinates of the the Cities) introduced the concept of descriptive geography. (في كتابه هو اسس اول مرة مفهوم العلم الهندسة الوصفية لتحيد خطوط الطول و العرض) His map of the world is amongst the oldest surviving maps. He argued, correctly, for a sedimentary origin for the Indus Valley and the Arabian Peninsula with fossils.

13 Al-Biruni described his own method for determining the circumference of the earth. مخيط العرض) (البيروني حدد طريقته خاصة لتحديد

14 AL-KARAJI Binomial expansion coefficient is given by him as. أس ن هو اقترح اول مرة فك ال (ا + ب)

15 Al-Karaji include summing the first n natural numbers as, ( جم الارقام الصحيحة من صفر الى نون ) n(n + 1)/2 The sum of the squares of the numbers is equal to the sum of these numbers and the product of each of them by its predecessor as( جم مربعة الارقام الصحيحة يساوى الى جم الارقام مضيف الية جم الارقام مع ضرب ما قبله ) Summation of the cubes of the first n natural numbers is given simply as, ( جم الارقام التكعيب يساوى الى تربيع جم الارقام )  i 2 =  i  i + (i -1) 3 = 2 ( )  i  i

16 He could now use the same rule on ( ممكن استخدام نفس القائدة كتالي ) (1 + 2 + 3 +... + 9) 2 then on ( و بعدين ) (1 + 2 + 3 +... + 8) 2 etc. to get ( و الخ, هو حصل على ) ( 1 + 2 +... + 10) 2 = (1 + 2 + 3 +... + 8) 2 + 9 3 + 10 3 = (1 + 2 + 3 +... + 7) 2 + 8 3 + 9 3 + 10 3 =... = 1 3 + 2 3 + 3 3 +... + 10 3. Al-Karaji also showed that (هو حصل أيدا على التالي) (1 + 2 + 3 +... + 10)2 =13 + 23 + 33 +... + 103 He did this by first showing that (هو حصل على هذا قبل كلى شى) (1 + 2 + 3 +... + 10)2 = (1 + 2 + 3 +... + 9)2 + 103

17 AL-KHWARIZMI ( الخرزمي ) A = (X + a/4 + a/4)(X + a/4 + a/4) = (X + a/2) 2 X 2 + aX + a 2 /4 = (X + a/2) 2 b + a 2 /4 = (X + a/2) 2 Finally, ( في الأخير ) X 1 = - a/2 -  b + a 2 /4 and X 2 = - a/2 +  b + a 2 /4 X 2 + aX = b (a/2)*X (a/2)*(a/2) X*X A = X2 + aX + (a/2)(a/2) = X2 + aX + a2/4 aX 2 + bX + c = 0

18 Al-Tusi developed trigonometry as a mathematical discipline rather than a tool for astronomical applications. His work is really the first in history on trigonometry. نصرا لدين الطوسي تطور علم المثلثات كفرع الرياضة معادا تطبيقها في علم الفلك فقط في الحقيقة عمله على المثلثات اصلي في تاريخ العلم AT-TUSI(الطوسي) a/sin A = b/sin B = c/sin C. Sinus law (قانون جيبي)

19 AL-SIJZI In work on geometrical algebra al-Sijzi proves geometrically that هو اثبت على اساس الهندسة الفك التالي (a + b) 3 = a 3 + 3ab(a + b) + b 3.

20 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS DURING ISLAMIC SCIENCE PERIOD

21 AL-JAZARI (Kitab fi ma'arifat al-hiyal al-handassiyya) كتاب فى معرفة الخيال الهندسية 1.Shaduf

22 2. Water or dough beating - AL-JAZARI (Kitab fi ma'arifat al-hiyal al-handassiyya) كتاب فى معرفة الخيال الهندسية

23 AL-JAZARI - (Kitab fi ma'arifat al-hiyal al-handassiyya) كتاب فى معرفة الخيال الهندسية

24 4. Bucket series on a ribbon to raise water AL-JAZARI (Kitab fi ma'arifat al-hiyal al-handassiyya) كتاب فى معرفة الخيال الهندسية

25 5. Robotic instrument AL-JAZARI (Kitab fi ma'arifat al-hiyal al-handassiyya) كتاب فى معرفة الخيال الهندسية

26 6. Cylinder, piston and crank axel AL-JAZARI (Kitab fi ma'arifat al-hiyal al-handassiyya) كتاب فى معرفة الخيال الهندسية ( ذراع تدوير - اسطوانة - مكبس )

27 Karanlık oda Mum Işık Görüntü İBNİ HEYSEM

28 AL-ZAHRAWI كتاب التصريف (Kitab at -Tasrif)

29 PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING Complexity Difficulty Observations Expert views Predictions LOGICAL RULES LOGICAL REASONING

30 ● Support for injunctions in the Koran that it is the bounden duty of every Muslim, man or woman, to acquire knowledge. ● Patronage of science by persons in high positions. Important examples include the early Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad (754 to 833). Princes and ministers found pleasure or reputation in supporting science. Sultan Ulug Bey at Samarkand, in modern-day Uzbekistan, even performed his own astronomical observations. ● A liberal and tolerant attitude to knowledge from all sources; international contacts and exchange of ideas. ● Good social conditions for scientists. علم (Alm, knowledge) عمل (Aml, practice) اخلا ص (Ikhlas, sincere devotion) ● The Koran encourages the pursuit of science, and in its heyday the Islamic world was a cradle of science for seven centuries.

31 External factors  Mongol invasion (1258)  Crusader remnants  1576 Tophane rasathanesi bombardımanı Internal factors  growing isolation  authoritative regimes  discouragement of innovation  restrictions on freedom of expression  official idological pressure DECLINE OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC WORLD

32 The following points are missing in our educational system self-confidence in independent research team spirit and cooperative work genuine science history with emphasis is on scientific developments right after the emergence of Islam and respect to foreign scientific thoughts with cultural intermingling for universality independent research centers and local productions independent scientific journals in native languages

33 ACADEMICIAN PROBLEMS  Do academicians follow the recent developments in science and education?  Is there competition between them?  Are they evaluated according to their academic activities or other measures out of science and education?  How often they allow students to ask questions with rational and logical answers?

34 Do political power in Islamic countries  strive for the wisdom ?, or  provide education facilities? DUPLICATION of western education system for knowledge generation through IMITATIVE patterns. Self cultural intermingling of the wisdom with historical heritage is needed Western education systems strive for Old Greek philosophy before Christ although Muslims contributed numerously into different disciplines of science After Christ with the emergence of Islam. Today, especially Muslims themselves forgot the foundation of science and education with the Islamic uprising

35 It is necessary to direct constructive Islamic criticism on pros and cons of modern science Politicians and academicians alike praise the Western science without any criticism for the betterment of their positions Muslims must give up worship-like attitude by Muslims without creative wisdom. THIS IS THE WAY TO OVERCOME THE INFERIORITY COMPLEX. THIS MUST BE ACHIEVED FIRST WITH THE STAFF MEMBERS, ACADEMICIANS AND EDUCATORS.

36 Deficiencies in science and education investment are one of the major obstacles to progress — the primary impediments are political. Spending on research and development in the Islamic world is an order of magnitude below the global average. Islamic countries on average spend less than 0.4% (world average 2.36%) of their gross national product on research. Islamic countries are often hampered by isolation and a relatively immature university system.

37 Political leaders in many Islamic nations simply fail to appreciate the importance of scientific research to their countries’ development. Individual scientists need better security — in jobs, salaries and pensions. Perhaps distinvtion between academicians and scientists.

38 Neglecting the impact of Islam on science would not only be blind, but a disservice to Muslim peoples, who, if they are to become prosperous, need to shift from their flagging natural resource- and agriculture- based economies to knowledge-based ones. Greater dialogue is needed among Muslim scholars and scientists about how to encourage science to flourish in the Islamic world through educational and research institutions.


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