10Pre-Darwinian Views 1. Greeks 2. Fixed Species 3. Catastophism 4. Hutton and Lyell5. Lamarck
11Pre-Darwinian Views 1. Greeks 2. Fixed Species 3. Catastophism 4. Hutton and Lyell5. Lamarck
12Greek Philosophers1. Plato - Organisms are already perfectly adapted to their environments.2. Aristotle - Organisms arranged on a “scale of life” from simple to complex.
13ResultNo evolution.Life is already perfect and doesn’t need to change.All the rungs on life's "ladder" are already occupied.
14Pre-Darwinian Views 2. Fixed Species 3. Catastophism 1. Greeks2. Fixed Species3. Catastophism4. Hutton and Lyell5. Lamarck
15Fixed Species ConceptThe creator had designed each and every species for a particular purpose.Carolus Linnaeus interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purposeLinnaeus was the founder of taxonomy, the branch of biology concerned with classifying organisms
16ResultNo evolution.Created the viewpoint that all species could be identified and named (Taxonomy).A major factor in the Linnaeus classification system.
17Pre-Darwinian Views 3. Catastophism 4. Hutton and Lyell 5. Lamarck 1. Greeks2. Fixed Species3. Catastophism4. Hutton and Lyell5. Lamarck
18Catastrophism Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). Attempted to relate fossils to current life.
26The study of fossils helped to lay the groundwork for Darwin’s ideas Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata
27Layers of deposited sediment Younger stratum with more recent fossils Fig. 22-3Layers of depositedsedimentYounger stratumwith more recentfossilsFigure 22.3 Formation of sedimentary strata with fossilsOlder stratumwith older fossils
28Charles LyellIncorporated Hutton’s gradualism into a theory called Uniformitarianism.
29UniformitarianismGeological processes have operated at the same rate over the Earth’s history.Result - The Earth must be VERY old. (much older than 6000 years of the fixed species concept).Idea that slow and subtle processes can cause substantial change.
35Lamark Mechanisms 1. Use and Disuse - 2. Acquired Characteristics Body parts used to survive become larger and stronger.Body parts not used to survive deteriorate.2. Acquired CharacteristicsModifications acquired by use/disuse were passed on to offspring.
36Problem No knowledge of genetics. Acquired traits are not transmitted offspring.
37Lamarck’s CreditsDid suggest correctly the role of fossils in evolution.Did suggest that adaptation to the environment is a primary product of evolution.