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How much do you know about Paleontology?

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Presentation on theme: "How much do you know about Paleontology?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How much do you know about Paleontology?
JOURNAL # 1 What is a fossil? (YOUR DEFINITION)

2 Geology: Paleontology & Geologic Time
Created in 2008 by Tim F. Rowbotham

3 Geology is the study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth.

4 Paleontology is the study of prehistoric life, particularly through fossil remains.

5 Fossils are the remains, imprints, or traces of prehistoric organisms.

6 Fossil Formation Requires shelter from scavengers, decay, and physical destruction.

7 Fossil Formation Most commonly occurs through quick burial by sediment. Is more likely to occur with hard parts such as bone, shells, and teeth.

8 Types of Fossils

9 Types of Fossils Permineralized remains Carbon films Molds & Casts
Original Remains Trace Fossils

10 Permineralized Remains
occur when parts of the original remains are replaced by minerals flowing through ground water. This process is called petrification.

11 Permineralized Remains
Fossil turtle shell

12 Permineralized Remains
Fossil dimetrodon

13 Permineralized Remains
Petrified wood

14 Permineralized Remains
Baby protoceratops

15 Permineralized Remains
Whale fossil

16 Permineralized Remains
Fossil tyrannosaurus

17 Carbon Films occur when pressure from layers of sediment leaves only a thin carbon residue.

18 Carbon Films Beech leaf

19 Carbon Films Ancient salamander

20 Carbon Films Fossil fish

21 Molds & Casts Formation of fossil shell molds

22 Molds are hollow areas left in sediment that show the shape of the original organism.

23 Molds & Casts External mold of shell

24 Molds & Casts Internal mold of shell

25 Casts are copies of the shape of original organism that form from minerals deposited into the mold.

26 Molds & Casts Cast of trilobite

27 Molds & Casts Formation of fossil shell molds

28 Original Remains including the soft parts of the organism are sometimes found in hardened tree resin, frozen ground, or tar pits.

29 Original Remains Bee encased in amber

30 Original Remains Scorpion in amber

31 Original Remains Mammoth hair

32 Trace Fossils provide evidence of an organism’s activity. They include footprints, trails, burrows, and excrement.

33 Trace Fossils Dinosaur tracks

34 Trace Fossils Fossil trails of climactichnites

35 Trace Fossils Fossil burrows

36 Journal #2 List 3 types of fossils and give a brief description of each. READY YOUR REMOTES

37 How fossils form VIDEOS
How Fossils are Formed 2 How Fossils are Formed 1

38 Fun Facts about Sue Sue Wiki


40 Relative Age is the age of a rock or fossil compared to the ages of other rocks or fossils.

41 Catastrophism is the belief that the earth’s geological features were formed rapidly as a result of large catastrophes.

42 Catastrophes that could cause rapid geologic change include landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, and earthquakes.

43 Uniformitarianism is the idea that the processes occurring on earth today are similar to those that occurred in the past.

44 Uniformitarianism basically says “The present is the key to the past.”

45 Uniformitarianism is the idea that geological features formed slowly over long periods of time.

46 Catastrophism vs. Uniformitarianism
Geologic Features Form slowly over time Form rapidly due to major forces & events Age of the earth Billions of years Thousands of years

47 Catastrophism & a Young Earth
Where would dinosaurs fit in? DRAGONS or DINOSAURS VIDEO (FULL VIDEO 1:24) 3:09 – ?

48 Principle of Superposition
as sedimentary rocks form, they are deposited on older rock layers.

49 Principle of Superposition
in undisturbed layers, the oldest is on the bottom and higher layers are younger.

50 Principle of Superposition
Oldest layer is on bottom (1)

51 Principle of Superposition
The Grand Canyon

52 Principle of Superposition
The Grand Canyon

53 Principle of Superposition
Younger Layers of Rock Older Layers of Rock The Grand Canyon

54 Extrusions are igneous rocks layers that form on the surface when lava hardens.

55 Extrusions are always younger than the layers over which they form.

56 Extrusion Kubu Rock – Botswana, Africa

57 Intrusions are igneous rocks that form when magma pushes up into rock layers.

58 Intrusions are always younger than the rock layers they invade.

59 Intrusion Devil’s Tower, WY

60 Intrusions & Extrusions

61 Journal #3 Draw the following geologic cross-section:
1.) 2 layers of sedimentary rock form. 2.) An extrusion forms on top of the two layers. 3.) A 3rd layer of sedimentary rock forms. 4.) An intrusion cuts through the all the rock layers, but not to the surface. 5.) A 4th layer of sedimentary rock forms.

62 Faults are breaks in the earth’s crust. A fault is always younger than the rock it cuts through.

63 Faults

64 Faults Shoshone Fault, CA

65 Folds occur when rock layers are compressed together and bend or curve.

66 Folds Guadalajara, Spain

67 Folds Mojave Desert, CA

68 Folds South Wales, Australia

69 Draw the following geologic cross-section:
Journal #4 Draw the following geologic cross-section: 1.) 2 layers of sedimentary rock form. 2.) The 2 layers of rock are folded. 3.) A 3rd sedimentary layer forms. 4.) A fault cuts through all the layers, shifting some rock up. 5.) A 4th sedimentary layer forms. 6.) An intrusion cuts all the way to the surface forming an extrusion.

70 Unconformities are gaps in the rock sequence (caused by the erosion of rock layers).

71 Angular Unconformity occur when rock layers are tilted or uplifted, and then worn down by erosion and weathering. Sediments are then deposited on top of these eroded layers.

72 Angular Unconformity

73 Angular Unconformity

74 Angular Unconformity

75 Angular Unconformity Grand Canyon

76 Angular Unconformity Siccar Point, Scotland

77 Angular Unconformity Combs Quarry, Yorkshire, England

78 Disconformities are gaps created when erosion occurs on an overlying rock layer.

79 Disconformity

80 Disconformity

81 Disconformity

82 Nonconformity are formed when sedimentary rock overlays igneous or metamorphic rocks.

83 Nonconformity

84 Nonconformity

85 Nonconformity Grand Canyon

86 Nonconformity Egypt

87 Unconformities

88 SOME Relative Dating Practice
Write the correct order of events by numbering their occurances. Include any and all cross-cut relationships.

89 Relative Dating Example

90 Relative Dating

91 Relative Dating

92 Relative Dating

93 Correlation is using rock and fossil evidence to match up dating at different locations.

94 Correlation

95 Correlation

96 Correlation

97 Index Fossils are used for dating the rock layers in which they are found. (p. 4 Notes)

98 Index Fossils are species that were abundant all over the earth, but existed for shorter periods of time.

99 Index Fossil trilobite

100 Index Fossil ammonite

101 Index Fossil reptaculite

102 Index Fossil Correlation using index fossils

103 Index Fossil Correlation using index fossils


105 Index Fossil Correlation

106 Draw a geologic cross-section with the following:
Journal #5 Draw a geologic cross-section with the following: 1.) At least 5 sedimentary rock layers 2.) At least 3 cross-cuts Write a geologic history that explains the order of occurrence of each event.

107 Paleontology Notes RETURN YOUR REMOTE Finding Clues to Rock Layers
HW: (Pal Pack) p.18 “The Grandest Canyon of All” p.19 “Relative Order of Geologic Events” p. 20 “Geologic Puzzles”

108 Absolute Age is the age in years of a rock or other object (as determined by radiometric dating.

109 Radiometric Dating entails finding the amount of certain radioactive elements left in a rock or object.

110 Radioactive Decay is the release of particles and energy from the nuclei of unstable atoms.

111 Radioactive Elements are elements whose nuclei are unable to hold together, and eject particles and energy.

112 The Parent Element is the element whose nucleus radioactively decays into another element.

113 The Daughter Element is the new element that is produced after the decay of the parent element.

114 Half-Life is the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay.

115 Half-Life is always the same. It does not depend on the amount of atoms.

116 Half-Life is unaffected by almost all other outside factors. Decay occurs at a steady rate.


118 Sample Half-lives Iodine-129 16,000,000 years Carbon-14 5730 years
Strontium years Sodium hours Technetium hours Fluorine minutes Oxygen seconds

119 Radiometric Dating As time passes, the amount of a parent isotope in a rock decreases as it decays. It has decayed into the daughter element.

120 Radiometric Dating basically involves measuring how much of the daughter element has formed.

121 Age Determination can then be made by using the known half-life to determine how much time has passed.

122 Age Determination typically, the dating can be estimated only up to a MAX of 10 half-lives.

123 Common Types of Radiometric Dating
Potassium-argon dating Uranium-lead dating Rubidium-strontium dating Radiocarbon dating

124 Potassium- Argon Dating
Potassium-40 decays to Argon-40. Potassium-40 has a half-life of 1,300,000,000 years. (used on igneous & metamorphic rock)

125 (used on igneous & metamorphic rock)
Uranium-Lead Dating Uranium-235 decays to Lead-207 Half-life: 700,000,000 years Uranium-238 decays to Lead-204 Half-life: 4,500,000,000 years (used on igneous & metamorphic rock)


127 Rubidium-Strontium Dating
Rubidium-87 decays to Strontium-87 Rubidium has a half-life of 50,000,000,000 years. (used on igneous & metamorphic rock)

128 Radiocarbon Dating Carbon-14 decays to Nitrogen-14. Carbon dating is used to measure how long an organism has been dead.

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