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How much do you know about Paleontology? JOURNAL # 1 What is a fossil? (YOUR DEFINITION)

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Presentation on theme: "How much do you know about Paleontology? JOURNAL # 1 What is a fossil? (YOUR DEFINITION)"— Presentation transcript:


2 How much do you know about Paleontology? JOURNAL # 1 What is a fossil? (YOUR DEFINITION)

3 Geology: Paleontology & Geologic Time Created in 2008 by Tim F. Rowbotham

4 Geology is the study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth.

5 Paleontology is the study of prehistoric life, particularly through fossil remains.

6 Fossils are the remains, imprints, or traces of prehistoric organisms.

7 Fossil Formation Requires shelter from scavengers, decay, and physical destruction.

8 Fossil Formation Most commonly occurs through quick burial by sediment. Is more likely to occur with hard parts such as bone, shells, and teeth.

9 Types of Fossils

10 Permineralized remains Carbon films Molds & Casts Original Remains Trace Fossils

11 Permineralized Remains occur when parts of the original remains are replaced by minerals flowing through ground water. This process is called petrification.

12 Permineralized Remains Fossil turtle shell

13 Permineralized Remains Fossil dimetrodon

14 Permineralized Remains Petrified wood

15 Permineralized Remains Baby protoceratops

16 Permineralized Remains Whale fossil

17 Permineralized Remains Fossil tyrannosaurus

18 Carbon Films occur when pressure from layers of sediment leaves only a thin carbon residue.

19 Carbon Films Beech leaf

20 Carbon Films Ancient salamander

21 Carbon Films Fossil fish

22 Molds & Casts Formation of fossil shell molds

23 Molds are hollow areas left in sediment that show the shape of the original organism.

24 Molds & Casts External mold of shell

25 Molds & Casts Internal mold of shell

26 Casts are copies of the shape of original organism that form from minerals deposited into the mold.

27 Molds & Casts Cast of trilobite

28 Molds & Casts Formation of fossil shell molds

29 Original Remains including the soft parts of the organism are sometimes found in hardened tree resin, frozen ground, or tar pits.

30 Original Remains Bee encased in amber

31 Original Remains Scorpion in amber

32 Original Remains Mammoth hair

33 Trace Fossils provide evidence of an organism’s activity. They include footprints, trails, burrows, and excrement.

34 Trace Fossils Dinosaur tracks

35 Trace Fossils Fossil trails of climactichnites

36 Trace Fossils Fossil burrows

37 Journal #2 List 3 types of fossils and give a brief description of each. READY YOUR REMOTES

38 How fossils form VIDEOS How Fossils are Formed 2How Fossils are Formed How Fossils are Formed 1How Fossils are Formed

39 Fun Facts about Sue Sue Wiki


41 Relative Age is the age of a rock or fossil compared to the ages of other rocks or fossils.

42 Catastrophism is the belief that the earth’s geological features were formed rapidly as a result of large catastrophes.

43 Catastrophes that could cause rapid geologic change include landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, and earthquakes.

44 Uniformitarianism is the idea that the processes occurring on earth today are similar to those that occurred in the past.

45 Uniformitarianism basically says “The present is the key to the past.”

46 Uniformitarianism is the idea that geological features formed slowly over long periods of time.

47 Catastrophism vs. Uniformitarianism UniformitarianismCatastrophism Geologic Features Form slowly over time Form rapidly due to major forces & events Age of the earth Billions of years Thousands of years

48 Catastrophism & a Young Earth Where would dinosaurs fit in? DRAGONS or DINOSAURS VIDEO (FULL VIDEO 1:24) 3:09 – ?

49 Principle of Superposition as sedimentary rocks form, they are deposited on older rock layers.

50 Principle of Superposition in undisturbed layers, the oldest is on the bottom and higher layers are younger.

51 Principle of Superposition Oldest layer is on bottom (1)

52 Principle of Superposition The Grand Canyon

53 Principle of Superposition The Grand Canyon

54 Principle of Superposition The Grand Canyon Younger Layers of Rock Older Layers of Rock

55 Extrusions are igneous rocks layers that form on the surface when lava hardens.

56 Extrusions are always younger than the layers over which they form.

57 Extrusion Kubu Rock – Botswana, Africa

58 Intrusions are igneous rocks that form when magma pushes up into rock layers.

59 Intrusions are always younger than the rock layers they invade.

60 Intrusion Devil’s Tower, WY

61 Intrusions & Extrusions

62 Journal #3 Draw the following geologic cross-section: 1.) 2 layers of sedimentary rock form. 2.) An extrusion forms on top of the two layers. 3.) A 3 rd layer of sedimentary rock forms. 4.) An intrusion cuts through the all the rock layers, but not to the surface. 5.) A 4 th layer of sedimentary rock forms.

63 Faults are breaks in the earth’s crust. A fault is always younger than the rock it cuts through.

64 Faults

65 Shoshone Fault, CA

66 Folds occur when rock layers are compressed together and bend or curve.

67 Folds Guadalajara, Spain

68 Folds Mojave Desert, CA

69 Folds South Wales, Australia

70 Journal #4 Draw the following geologic cross-section: 1.) 2 layers of sedimentary rock form. 2.) The 2 layers of rock are folded. 3.) A 3 rd sedimentary layer forms. 4.) A fault cuts through all the layers, shifting some rock up. 5.) A 4 th sedimentary layer forms. 6.) An intrusion cuts all the way to the surface forming an extrusion.

71 Unconformities are gaps in the rock sequence (caused by the erosion of rock layers).

72 Angular Unconformity occur when rock layers are tilted or uplifted, and then worn down by erosion and weathering. Sediments are then deposited on top of these eroded layers.

73 Angular Unconformity



76 Grand Canyon

77 Angular Unconformity Siccar Point, Scotland

78 Angular Unconformity Combs Quarry, Yorkshire, England

79 Disconformities are gaps created when erosion occurs on an overlying rock layer.

80 Disconformity



83 Nonconformity are formed when sedimentary rock overlays igneous or metamorphic rocks.

84 Nonconformity


86 Grand Canyon

87 Nonconformity Egypt

88 Unconformities

89 SOME Relative Dating Practice Write the correct order of events by numbering their occurances. Include any and all cross-cut relationships.

90 Relative Dating Example

91 Relative Dating



94 Correlation is using rock and fossil evidence to match up dating at different locations.

95 Correlation



98 Index Fossils are used for dating the rock layers in which they are found. (p. 4 Notes)

99 Index Fossils are species that were abundant all over the earth, but existed for shorter periods of time.

100 Index Fossil trilobite

101 Index Fossil ammonite

102 Index Fossil reptaculite

103 Index Fossil Correlation using index fossils

104 Index Fossil Correlation using index fossils


106 Index Fossil Correlation

107 Journal #5 Draw a geologic cross-section with the following: 1.) At least 5 sedimentary rock layers 2.) At least 3 cross-cuts Write a geologic history that explains the order of occurrence of each event.

108 Paleontology Notes RETURN YOUR REMOTE Finding Clues to Rock Layers HW: (Pal Pack) p.18 “The Grandest Canyon of All” p.19 “Relative Order of Geologic Events” p. 20 “Geologic Puzzles”

109 Absolute Age is the age in years of a rock or other object (as determined by radiometric dating.

110 Radiometric Dating entails finding the amount of certain radioactive elements left in a rock or object.

111 Radioactive Decay is the release of particles and energy from the nuclei of unstable atoms.

112 Radioactive Elements are elements whose nuclei are unable to hold together, and eject particles and energy.

113 The Parent Element is the element whose nucleus radioactively decays into another element.

114 The Daughter Element is the new element that is produced after the decay of the parent element.

115 Half-Life is the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay.

116 Half-Life is always the same. It does not depend on the amount of atoms.

117 Half-Life is unaffected by almost all other outside factors. Decay occurs at a steady rate.


119 Sample Half-lives Iodine-12916,000,000 years Carbon years Strontium years Sodium hours Technetium-99 6 hours Fluorine minutes Oxygen seconds

120 Radiometric Dating As time passes, the amount of a parent isotope in a rock decreases as it decays. It has decayed into the daughter element.

121 Radiometric Dating basically involves measuring how much of the daughter element has formed.

122 Age Determination can then be made by using the known half-life to determine how much time has passed.

123 Age Determination typically, the dating can be estimated only up to a MAX of 10 half-lives.

124 Common Types of Radiometric Dating Potassium-argon dating Uranium-lead dating Rubidium-strontium dating Radiocarbon dating

125 Potassium- Argon Dating Potassium-40 decays to Argon-40. Potassium-40 has a half-life of 1,300,000,000 years. (used on igneous & metamorphic rock)

126 Uranium-Lead Dating Uranium-235 decays to Lead-207 Half-life: 700,000,000 years Uranium-238 decays to Lead-204 Half-life: 4,500,000,000 years (used on igneous & metamorphic rock)


128 Rubidium-Strontium Dating Rubidium-87 decays to Strontium-87 Rubidium has a half-life of 50,000,000,000 years. (used on igneous & metamorphic rock)

129 Radiocarbon Dating Carbon-14 decays to Nitrogen-14. Carbon dating is used to measure how long an organism has been dead.

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