Presentation on theme: "Geology Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales."— Presentation transcript:
1GeologySedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales
2What are Rocks?A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matterRocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and textureRocks change over time through the rock cycle
4Igneous Rocks Igneous rock begins as magma. Magma can form: When rock is heatedWhen pressure is releasedWhen rock changes compositionMagma freezes between700 °C and 1,250 °CMagma is a mixture of many minerals
5Igneous RocksCoarse-grained: takes longer to cool, giving mineral crystals more time to grow (intrusive)Fine-grained: cools quickly with little to no crystals (extrusive)
7Igneous RocksIntrusive Igneous Rocks: magma pushes into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surfaceExtrusive Rocks: forms when magma erupts onto the Earth’s surface (lava), cools quickly with very small or no crystals formed
8Igneous Rocks Is this rock Intrusive or Extrusive? Obsidian What is Obsidian?Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.Igneous RocksObsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.Is this rock Intrusive or Extrusive?
9Characteristics of Igneous Rocks Hard (because the minerals they contain are hard)StrongInterlocking crystalsMicroscopic View of Interlocking Crystals
10Uses of Igneous Rocks Igneous rock Use Basalt Buildings (for example Melbourne bluestone), concrete (as crushed rock), floor tilesDoleriteRoad surfaces (where it is called 'blue metal'), concrete (as crushed rock)GraniteBuildings, monuments, road surfaces, kitchen benchtopsScoriaLandscaping, filters and concrete (all as crushed rock), barbecue rocksPumiceCleaning dead skin off feet, emery boards for shaping nails, some soaps that feel rough on your skinObsidianScalpel blade for surgery in hospitals, ornaments and jewellery. Ancient people used it for cutting, spear and arrow points, and pots and vases
11Igneous Rocks you NEED to Know GraniteBasaltPumiceScoriaObsidian
14WeatheringPhysical, chemical and biological process that break rocks down into smaller pieces.
15Physical Weathering Temperature change Action of Ice and Water Crystallisation of SaltsWindLiving plants (also known as biological weathering
16Temperature ChangeSolids _________ when heated and __________ when cooledThis expansion / contraction can crack a rock
17Action of Ice and Water Water takes up more space when frozen Water in cracks in rock freezes, expands and can increase the crack size.This can occur over and over again until frost shattering occurs.Can also crack rocks by cooling them rapidlyGlaciers cause U Shaped valleysWaves can weather rocksRivers can cut deep through rock forming gorges
18Crystallisation of Salts Crystals forming inside rock pores can crack them as they continue to growSalt can be formed by the evaporation of water from soil or evaporation of sea water.
19WindFine particles picked up by wind can blast the rock surface, wearing the rock away.
20Biological Weathering Rocks are worn away by living organisms.Trees and other plants can grow within the cracks in a rock formation.Over time the growing tree eventually prizes the rock apart.Tiny organisms like bacteria, algae and moss can grow on rocks and produce chemicals which can break down the surface layer of the rock. Burrowing animals such as rabbits can accelerate the formation of cracks.
21Chemical WeatheringChemicals in the air and water react with chemicals in the rockCaused mostly by water, oxygen and acids.The degree of chemical weathering depends on the type of rock for example limestone is more readily chemically weathered than granite. Other factors such as temperature also play a role as the chemical reactions occur more quickly in areas of high temperatures.
22Natural Acids Decay of dead plants and animals and from the rain. Not very strong.Limestone mostly affected – stalagmites and stalactite formation
23Acid RainWhen fossil fuels such as coal, gas and gasoline are burnt they release oxides sulphur, carbon and nitrogen into the atmosphere.These gases combine with moisture in the air to form sulphuric acid, carbonic acid and nitric acid, making the resulting rainwater more acidic than normal.
24ErosionSmall particles of broken rock (caused by weathering) carried away by water, wind and ice.Water, wind and ice = agents of erosionTakes place more so on mountains and hills….. WHY IS THIS SO?
25SedimentationDepositing of rock particles that are from another weathered rockOccurs when the moving water, wind or ice slows down.Where would this normally occur?
26Soil Sediments form basic component Also made of: bacteria and fungi, decaying wastes,dead leaves,twigs and insects,water,dissolved minerals and gases
28Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is formed by erosion and deposition Sediments are moved from one place to another (erosion)Sediments are deposited in layers, with the older oneson the bottom (deposition)The layers become compacted and cemented together
29Sedimentary RockSedimentary Rocks are formed at or near the Earth’s surfaceNo heat and pressure involvedStrata – layers of rockStratification – the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
30Types Sedimentary Rock – From Pieces of Weathered Rock Clastic – made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartzBreccia is a term most often used for clastic sedimentary rocks that are composed of large angular fragments (over two millimeters in diameter).The spaces between the large angular fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement that binds the rock together.
31Sedimentary Rock Types – Dead Animal or Plant Material Organic or Biological Sedimentary – remains of plants and animalsCoal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. Coal is a combustible rock and along with oil and natural gas it is one of the three most important fossil fuels.
32Sedimentary Rock – From Minerals Crystallisaing from Solution Chemical sedimentary – minerals crystallize out of solution to become rockLimestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters.It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris.
33Uses of Sedimentary Rocks LimestoneGarden WallsPavingBuildingsMaking cement, glass and steelSandstoneFlooringDecorative OrnamentsWallsMaking glassGypsumMaking plasterCoalEnergy supply
34Sedimentary Rocks you NEED to Know SandstoneMudstoneSiltstoneConglomerateLimestoneCoalChalk
36Metamorphic Rock Meaning to change shape Changes with temperature and pressure, but remainssolidUsually takes place deep inthe Earth
37Metamorphic Rocks Contact Metamorphism – heated by nearby magma Increased temperature changes the composition of the rock, minerals are changed into new mineralsHornfels is a fine-grained non-foliated metamorphic rock produced by contact metamorphism
38Metamorphic RocksRegional Metamorphism – pressure builds up in rocks that is deep within the EarthLarge pieces of the Earth’s crust collide and the rock is deformed and chemically changed by heat and pressure
40Metamorphic Rock Foliated - contain aligned grains of flat minerals Gneiss is foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is made up of granular mineral grains.It typically contains abundant quartz or feldspar minerals.
41Metamorphic RockNon-Foliated or Unbanded – mineral grains are not arranged in plains or bandsMarble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone.It is composed primarily of calcium carbonate.
42Uses of Metamorphic Rocks Name of RockUseSlateFlooringRood tilingMarbleBuildingsSculptures
43Metamorphic Rocks you NEED to Know Slate (from shale or siltstone)Marble (from limestone)
44Rock CycleModel geologist use to explain the endless cycle that rocks undergo.Rocks don’t always remain the same ‘type’ after they are formed
45Fossils Fossils allow palaeontologists to build a history of the Earth Remains or imprints of animals and plants preserved in rockRareRight circumstancesrequired
46Geologic Time The older the rock the simpler the fossil.. Why is this the case?The variety and complexity of life has increased as the Earth has become older.
47Comparative Dating (Relative) Sedimentary rocks – youngest rocks at the top, oldest at the bottom.Different rocks of the same age have the same fossils in themCalled guide or index fossils