Presentation on theme: "Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted"— Presentation transcript:
1Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted The Rock CycleImages from Geology.com unless otherwise noted
24-3-14 Do Now Turn in your Evidence of Learning 4 minutesThe Rock CycleKey Question: What are the 3 types of rocks, and how can we tell them apart?Initial thoughts:
3Evidence: Rock Cycle Notes Paste in the notes page.Go through this power point, and fill in the blanks.Sketch a rock cycleYou will use this information to create a color-coded diagram of the rock cycle.There are examples of the 3 types of rocks for you to view around the room.
4What are Rocks?A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matterRocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and textureRocks change over time through the rock cycle
11Igneous means “born of fire” Igneous RocksIgneous means “born of fire”
12Igneous Rocks Igneous rock begins as magma. Magma can form: When rock is heatedWhen pressure is releasedWhen rock changes compositionMagma freezes between700 °C and 1,250 °CMagma is a mixture ofmany minerals
15Igneous RocksFelsic: light colored rocks that are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodiumMafic: dark colored rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium, poor in siliconCoarse-grained: takes longer to cool, giving mineral crystals more time to growFine-grained: cools quickly with little to no crystals
17Igneous RocksIntrusive Igneous Rocks: magma pushes into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surfaceExtrusive Rocks: forms when magma erupts onto the Earth’s surface (lava), cools quickly with very small or no crystals formed
18Mafic, fine grained, extrusive ObsidianWhat is Obsidian?Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.Igneous RocksObsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.Is this rock Felsic or Mafic?Is it fine-grained or coarse-grained?Is this rock Intrusive or Extrusive?Mafic, fine grained, extrusive
23Sedimentary Rocks Sedimenary rock is formed by erosion Sediments are moved from one place to anotherSediments are deposited in layers, with the older oneson the bottomThe layers become compacted and cemented together
24Sedimentary RockSedimentary Rocks are formed at or near the Earth’s surfaceNo heat and pressure involvedStrata – layers of rockStratification – the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
25Sedimentary RockChemical sedimentary – minerals crystallize out of solution to become rockLimestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters.It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris.
26Sedimentary Rock Organic sedimentary – remains of plants and animals Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. Coal is a combustible rock and along with oil and natural gas it is one of the three most important fossil fuels.
27Sedimentary RockClastic – made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartzBreccia is a term most often used for clastic sedimentary rocks that are composed of large angular fragments (over two millimeters in diameter).The spaces between the large angular fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement that binds the rock together.
29Metamorphic Rock Meaning to change shape Changes with temperature and pressure, but remainssolidUsually takes place deep inthe Earth
30Metamorphic Rocks Contact Metamorphism – heated by nearby magma Increased temperature changes the composition of the rock, minerals are changed into new mineralsHornfels is a fine-grained non-foliated metamorphic rock produced by contact metamorphismigh&fr=t
31Metamorphic RocksRegional Metamorphism – pressure builds up in rocks that is deep within the EarthLarge pieces of the Earth’s crust collide and the rock is deformed and chemically changed by heat and pressure
32Metamorphic Rock Foliated - contain aligned grains of flat minerals Gneiss is foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is made up of granular mineral grains.It typically contains abundant quartz or feldspar minerals.
33Metamorphic RockNon-Foliated – mineral grains are not arranged in plains or bandsMarble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone.It is composed primarily of calcium carbonate.
34Metamorphic RockDetermine if the following rock samples are foliated or non-foliated:QuartziteAmphibolitePhylliteFoliated
36Paper Plate Rock CycleColor the pieces using the color key on the next slide.Cut them out, arrange them, and paste them onto the paper plate in the rock cycle.Make sure you have a title “Rock Cycle” on the front and your name and period on the back.
37Color Key Sedimentary Rock – Brown Sediments – Brown/Black Igneous Rock – Black with dark black spotsMetamorphic Rock – BlackCooling and Hardening – BlueWeathering and Erosion – BluePressing and Cementing – BlueMelting – RedMagma & Lava – RedHeat and Pressure - Red
38Analysis Questions Why is the rock cycle called a “cycle”? What parts of the rock cycle happen underground and out of our sight? What parts can we see happening?Look at the rock cycle diagram. Generally, what happens to a rock in order to become igneous? Sedimentary? Metamorphic?
39Summary Reminder: Write a well thought-out paragraph What did you think about the 3 types of rocks, and how to tell them apart before this lesson?What did you learn about the 3 types of rocks, and how to tell them apart from this lesson? (Minimum of 3 sentences!!!)What are some further thoughts or questions you have about the 3 types of rocks, and how to tell them apart?
40ReflectionWrite a joke, insult, or poem using what you learned about rocks.
41Big IdeaThe 3 main types of rocks are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic and are created by different processes in the rock cycle.