Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

IAEA Sources of Radiation Fuel Cycle - Overview Day 4 – Lecture 5 (1) 1.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "IAEA Sources of Radiation Fuel Cycle - Overview Day 4 – Lecture 5 (1) 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 IAEA Sources of Radiation Fuel Cycle - Overview Day 4 – Lecture 5 (1) 1

2 IAEA Objective To have an overview of the elements of Fuel Cycle starting from Uranium mining to waste disposal*: Mining Milling Conversion Enrichment Fuel Fabrication Power Generation Spent Fuel Reprocessing Waste Disposal *Note: These elements of fuel cycle will be discussed in detail in the following presentations 2

3 IAEA Contents Energy Resources Uranium Resources Other Sources of Fuel Properties of Uranium Fuel Cycle Components 3

4 IAEA Overview In this session we will discuss the Nuclear Fuel Cycle including: Mining Milling Conversion Enrichment Fuel Fabrication Power Generation Spent Fuel Reprocessing Waste Disposal 4

5 IAEA Energy Resources 5

6 IAEA ppm Source (part per million)* Typical Uranium Concentrations 6 Very high-grade ore (Canada) - 20% U 200,000 ppm U High-grade ore - 2% U,20,000 ppm U Low-grade ore - 0.1% U,1,000 ppm U Very low-grade ore* (Namibia) % U 100 ppm U Granite3-5 ppm U Sedimentary rock2-3 ppm U Earth's continental crust (av) 2.8 ppm U Seawater0.003 ppm U * Data from WNA (August 2012) Cycle/Uranium-Resources/Supply-of-Uranium/

7 IAEA Countrytonnes percentage of world* Australia1,661,00031% Kazakhstan629,00012% Russian Fed. 487,2009% Canada468,7009% Niger421,0008% South Africa279,1005% Brazil 276,7005% Namibia261,0005% USA 207,4004% China166,1003% Ukraine119,6002% Uzbekistan96,2002% Others253,5005% World Total 5,327,200 * Data from WNA (August 2012) Known Recoverable Uranium Resources 7 Resources/Supply-of-Uranium/

8 IAEA Uranium Decay Chain  Primary Isotopes  238 U - alpha emitter  235 U and 234 U – alpha/gamma emitters  Decay Products  231 Th and 234 Th - beta/gamma emitters  234m Pa - beta/gamma emitter 8

9 IAEA  Decommissioned Nuclear Weapons  over 90% 235 U (must be downblended for commercial fuel)  Thorium  coverts to 233 U after neutron capture  3 times more abundant than uranium Other Sources of Fuel 9

10 IAEA Natural uranium consists of three isotopes: Isotope % AbundanceHalf Life (10 6 years) 238 U , U U Properties of Natural Uranium 10

11 IAEA Uranium Properties 238 U is most abundant 234 U increases with enrichment Note activity ratios Natural Uranium Isotope Percent U-238 U-235 U-234 LEU Depleted

12 IAEA Uranium Specific Activity Type (enrichment) Specific Activity (Bq/gram) Depleted (0.2%)1.5 x 10 4 Natural (0.71%)2.6 x 10 4 Enriched (4%)8.9 x 10 4 Enriched (93%)4.1 x 10 6

13 IAEA Uranium Compounds UF 6 produced at conversion plants U 3 O 8 is yellowcake from milling UO 2 is dominant fuel type (ceramic) used to produce pellets UF 4 is intermediate form in conversion Uranyl nitrate is important in recovery 13

14 IAEA Fuel Cycle 14

15 IAEA Fuel Cycle Around the World 15

16 IAEA Reference  Cycle/Uranium-Resources/Supply-of-Uranium/  International Atomic Energy Agency, Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (PGEC), Training Course Series 18, IAEA, Vienna (2002) 16


Download ppt "IAEA Sources of Radiation Fuel Cycle - Overview Day 4 – Lecture 5 (1) 1."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google