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Log: 1/20 Page 32 Planet Diary.

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Presentation on theme: "Log: 1/20 Page 32 Planet Diary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Log: 1/20 Page 32 Planet Diary

2 Chapter 2 Minerals and Rocks
Table of Contents 2.1 Properties of Minerals 2.2 Classifying Rocks 2.3 Igneous Rocks 2.4 Sedimentary Rocks 2.5 Metamorphic Rocks 2.6 The Rock Cycle

3 Properties of Minerals
Are They or Aren’t They? To be classified as a mineral, a substance must satisfy five requirements.

4 Defining Minerals Crystal Structure and Solid Naturally Occurring
Means formed by a natural process. Have flat sides called faces Produced by a repeating pattern of atoms (ions or molecules)

5 Defining Minerals Definite Chemical Composition Inorganic
The mineral always contains specific element in definite proportions. Are formed from none living things.

6 Elements Pure substances that can't be broken down by in to simpler substances All minerals contain 1 or more of 92 elements

7 Atoms and Elements Elements are made of one kind of atom
Atom are the smallest part of any element that has all the properties When two or more elements combine it makes a compound Example

8 How Minerals are Identified
2.2 Page 35

9 Each mineral has characteristic properties that can be used to identify it.
Luster Streak Color Hardness Density Crystal Structure Cleavage and Fracture Special Properties

10 Luster- How the material reflects light
3 main types of luster Metallic-shiny, bright and reflective Looks like a metal Example : silver, copper, etc

11 Waxy , Greasy or Pearly Pollucite Glassy –
example: quartz, tourmaline Resinous (like resin or sap from a tree) – example: sphalerite Greasy or waxy – example: turquoise Sphalerite Nepheline and cancrinite

12 Silky Silky – having the look of silk, fine parallel fibers of mineral
example: asbestos Stellerite Gypsum

13 Streak The color of powder form of the mineral left on a porcelain plate called a streak plate (must be softer than the porcelain) The streak color is not effected by environment so it more reliable than color

14 Hardness Hardness How easily the mineral can be scratched
Can be compared to the hardness of other minerals by using the Mohs scale

15 Hardness

16 Density Ratio of mass to volume
Determined by the mass of the atoms and how close they are

17 Cleavage The way the mineral splits along flat surfaces or tendency to break smooth Determined by the arrangement of the atoms Not all minerals have cleavage

18 Fracture The tendency to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces These minerals do not have planes of weakness and break irregularly.

19 Log: Dec. 7th What do geologist uses to determine how hard a mineral is? What are the 3 types of luster? What things can I use to identify minerals?

20 Special Properties page 73
Fluorescent Magnetism Taste Chemical Reaction Optical Properties Radioactivity

21 Fluorescent Minerals

22 Color Color by itself IS NOT sufficient to identify a mineral
The same mineral can be found in a variety of colors Things that change color Impurities Exposure to air or water (other elements)

23 How Do Minerals form??? Organic Process Crystalized from Solutions
Crystalized as lava or Magma Cool

24 Organic Minerals Different animals produce shells and skeletons.
Examples: Clams and Coral can produce calcite.

25 Solution Minerals Solution – a mixture in which a substance is dissolved in another. Two Forms of solution Minerals Evaporation- when the water in salt water evaporates it leaves halite. Hot Water solution- Hot water can dissolve elements and compounds that form minerals once the cool.

26 Magma and Lava Formations
Minerals form once hot magma or lava cool. Magma Cools slowly below the surface and forms large crystals. Example: Quartz, mica and tourmaline

27 Properties of Minerals
Complete the graphic organizer to show how a geode forms in four steps.

28 Log: 1/27 Read Lab Worksheet Open book for HW check. Trade with someone at your table. What is the purpose of determining a minerals streak Color?

29 Lesson 2 Classifying Rocks
Page 44

30 Log: 1/30 Read and answer questions form planet diary page 44

31 How do Geologist Classify p.45
To Study rock samples geologist observe the rock’s mineral composition, color and texture.

32 Mineral Composition and Color
Rock can be composed of one mineral or more. Rock- forming minerals. 20 different minerals make up majority of the rock found in the Earth Crust. Granite- light color with high silica (made with silicone and oxygen) content. Basalt- dark color, low silica ,tiny mineral crystals

33 Texture- look and feel of rocks surface.
Grain Shape Grains-give the rock texture Grain Pattern Grain Size

34 Rock Origins Rocks are classified by the way they formed. Three Main Groups Rock Types Form Igneous- Cooling magma or lava Sedimentary When small remains of plants and animals are pressed together Metamorphic When rock are changed by heat or pressure. Changed by chemical reaction

35 Log: 1/31 Read lab What safety things do you need for this lab?
How many drops of wax go into the hot water? What is the spoon used for? Show me your ready by prepping your desk.

36 Igneous Rock Classification
Origin and Texture Origin Example Grain Crystals Mineral Composition Extrusive Lava cooling quickly Basalt Fine Small Crystals Low in silica Intrusive Magma Hardening slowly Granite Corse Large Crystals High silica

37 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Origins and Textures The texture of igneous rock varies according to its origin.

38 Igneous Rock Used Tools Building Materials
Kitchen and bathroom counters Walk ways Igneous Rock Used

39 Log: 2/6 What are the 3 main types of sedimentary rock?
What is weathering?

40 Sedimentary

41 Sedimentary Rocks How Sedimentary Rock Forms
Sedimentary rocks form through a series of processes over millions of years.

42 Sedimentary Rocks Put the terms listed in the word bank in the proper sequence to show how mountains can change into sedimentary rock.

43 Clastic Rocks Formed from rock fragments
Classified by size of fragments

44 Sedimentary Rocks pg 55 Organic Rocks How do coal and limestone form?
Organic rocks form from living things such as plants and animal remains.

45 Chemical Rocks Examples Limestone formed from calcite Halite Forms
When minerals dissolved in water solution crystalizes. Evaporation salt water minerals.

46 Sedimentary Rocks Form Sequence Major Types Examples
Using a sequence of events Weathering or erosion Deposition Compaction Cementation Organic Chemical Clastic Coal Limestone Limestone and halite Shale, sandstone, conglomerate

47 Metamorphic Rocks Form Major Types Examples Used
Igneous or sedimentary change due to heat or pressure. (other metamorphic rocks) Foliated (parallel grains) Non-foliated (random grains) Granite >Gneiss Quartzite> sandstone Marble slate

48 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rock
Great heat and pressure can change one type of rock into another. Are these types of rock sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic? Which rock can form from the other rock?

49 The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle
Through melting, weathering and erosion, and heat and pressure, the rock cycle constantly changes rocks from one type into another type.

50 The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics
New rock forms on the ocean floor at the mid-Atlantic ridge. Here, two plates move apart.

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