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E XPLORING M INNESOTA By Stephen Nguyen. We will be examining the following pages in DeLorme’s Minnesota Atlas & Gazetteer: Page 87Page 75Page 55 Page.

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Presentation on theme: "E XPLORING M INNESOTA By Stephen Nguyen. We will be examining the following pages in DeLorme’s Minnesota Atlas & Gazetteer: Page 87Page 75Page 55 Page."— Presentation transcript:

1 E XPLORING M INNESOTA By Stephen Nguyen

2 We will be examining the following pages in DeLorme’s Minnesota Atlas & Gazetteer: Page 87Page 75Page 55 Page 34

3 P AGE 87: BACKGROUND This page lies in the very southeastern corner of Minnesota It is part of the Bluff Region It is made up of the Winona and Houston Counties Sites: Winona State University and St. Mary’s College Richard J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest Great River Bluffs State Park Beaver Creek Valley State Park Apple Blossom Drive

4 T HE L AND : B LUFF R EGION In this part of the state, you will find many bluffs, which are steep or broad hills or cliffs, typically located near a river Bluffs were formed because of repeated transgressions of subsidence and uplift between 550 and 350 millions of years ago When seas covered the large areas during subsidence, layers of sedimentary rock were left on the floors of the sea and became strata of sedimentary rock once the land was uplifted again This is the only part of the state where you will find solid bedrock, or bedrock that is close enough to the surface that it has an impact on the shape of the land

5 Bluff Examples “Sugar Loaf Bluffs” in Winona, MN More Bluffs in Winona, MN Limestone Bluff in Winona

6 T HE L AND : S TRATA In southeastern Minnesota, the lowest sedimentary rock was deposited first; thus, they are the oldest This older strata is primarily sandstone The younger strata that sits on top is primarily carbonates (limestone and dolomite) These rocks resist physical erosion and they caprock steep sandstone bluffs They dissolve very easily The underlying rock that dissolved caused sinkholes in the land and the ground to collapse

7 T HE L AND : D RIFTLESS A REA Glacial ice apparently did not cover the southeastern part of the state near the Mississippi River “Drift” refers to all materials deposited by glaciers On page 87, you will find a Driftless Area on the upper right corner of the page. It is marked with a “Unique Natural Features” symbol (see legend) It is known as a Driftless Area because no glacial deposit left by the ice has ever reached it

8 T HE L AND : G OAT P RAIRIES Also marked with a “Unique Natural Features” symbol in the DeLorme atlas, these dry, hilly prairies are located just above the Driftless Area on page 87 These prairies tend to be dry because they sit on a steep slope, soaking up the sun They receive little water, and the dry shallow soil sits over sand or limestone

9 W INONA Winona is one of the major cities on page 87 of the Atlas Winona means “first-born- daughter” in Dakota Its location on the Mississippi River made it Minnesota’s third- largest town in 1860 It became a major sawmilling center and received over a thousand steamboats a year by 1860 Winona profited greatly from farming In 1870, it was the fourth wheat shipping port in the United States Winona’s population peaked in 1900, and the city began to decline until recent decades

10 S ITES IN W INONA J.R. Watkins Company located in the Majestic Administration Building off East 3 rd St. J.R. Watkins began his business in Winona where he manufactured an array of pharmaceutical applications, most notably the red liniment The company has grown into one of the largest direct sales operations in the world It’s still a thriving business today with the help of its catalog and internet sales You can also visit the Watkins Museum located in this building Polish Museum (102 Liberty Street) Minnesota Marine Art Museum (800 Riverview Drive) Merchants National Bank (102 E. Third St.) Acoustic Café (77 Lafayette St)

11 W INONA S TATE U NIVERSITY Established in 1858 when the MN State Legislature established “normal schools” Enrollment of about 8600 In the 2011 edition of “Best Colleges” by U.S. News Media Group, WSU is ranked second among public universities in Minnesota Also ranked America’s "100 Best College Buys" for 15 years in a row for the quality and value that they convey St. Mary’s College A Catholic college established in 1912 in Winona Enrollment of about 6000 Offers two Campuses: Winona and Minneapolis Received recognition from Forbes, Princeton Review, and U.S. News and Report

12 Richard J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest Richard J. Dorer began working for the MN Department of Conservation in 1938 After seeing the erosion in the hillsides in southeastern MN, he developed a plan to restore the area Replant slopes with trees Acquire erosion-prone land and establish wildlife management areas, state parks and forests The forests stretches for about 1 million acres and is public and privately owned. The State owns about 45, 000 acres

13 G REAT R IVER B LUFFS S TATE P ARK The park is located just southeast of Winona Its about 3000 acres long with steep bluffs rising 500 ft The park includes hiking trails, a campground, and stunning views Wildlife includes 35 species of mammals, 17 species of reptiles and amphibians, and over 100 species of birds The park offers great views of steep grassy hillsides covered with sunflowers and wild bergamot September to mid-October are peak color months

14 B EAVER C REEK V ALLEY S TATE P ARK Located in Caledonia (The Wild Turkey Capital of MN) The park is 1,187 acres long There are 45,474 annual visits, and 6,437 overnight visits The park resides in the Driftless Area Wildlife include: deer, raccoon, muskrat, mink, badger, red and gray fox, an occasional beaver, and wild turkey. A rare animal that can be found in the park is the timber rattlesnake

15 A PPLE B LOSSOM D RIVE Located in La Crescent (Apple Capital of MN) Just off of Highway 61, Apple Blossom Drive rises into the Bluff Country with wooded ravines and hills covered by apple trees, and farmlands “17 miles of spectacular beauty- orchards, bluffs, farm lands- overlooking the Mississippi River”

16 Slide 2 Image Src: DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer Slide 4 Info Src: Slide 4 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 5 Img Src: pg pg Slide 5 Img Src: Slide 5 Img Src: Slide 6 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 7 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 7 Img Src: Slide 8 Info Src: Slide 8 Img Src: Slide 8 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 9 Img Src: Slide 9 Info Src: Slide 9 Img Src: Slide 10 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 11 Info Src: Slide 11 Img Src: 20D7CF958CD8} 20D7CF958CD8} Slide 11 Info Src: Slide 11 Img Src: Slide 12 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 13 Img Src: Slide 13 Img Src: Slide 13 Info Src: Slide 14 Info Src: Slide 14 Img Src: Slide 14 Img Src: Slide 15 Info Src: Slide 15 Img Src:

17 P AGE 75: B ACKGROUND This page lies in the southern central part of the state It is part of the Southern Prairies It is mainly made up of the Brown, Le Sueur, Sibley and Nicollet Counties Major cities include: New Ulm, Mankato, and Le Sueur Sites: Minneopa State Parks Mount Kato Sakatah Singing Hills Flandrau State Park Harkin Store The Mayo House

18 D ISTRIBUTION OF G LACIAL L ANDFORMS Over a period of 60,000 years, huge lobes of ice scattered southward across the state many times from different directions There are 4 major lobes: Wadena, Rainy, Superior, and Des Moines These lobes are responsible for most of Minnesota’s current landscape The Des Moines Lobe is responsible for creating much of the present landscape in southern Minnesota

19 T HE L AND 14,000 years ago, the Des Moines Lobe pushed southward across MN from the Red River Valley all the way to Iowa It deposited particles from Canada and North Dakota such as fine-textured, silty, grayish-brown till consisting mainly of shale particles This formed a rolling till plain that has now developed the finest farmland in south central and southwestern MN

20 S OUTHERN P RAIRIES When European immigrants first arrived in the Midwest, they saw a massive land of prairie grasses Southern Minnesota was dominated by prairie grasses that were often more than head high In the western states, grasses were drier and shorter Today about one fifth of these western grasses remain Almost all of the tall grass prairies of the 1850s have vanished 150,000 acres of prairie remain, which is only less than 1% of its original content

21 H ISTORY - T RAVERSE DES S IOUX The site where whites and Indians came together to negotiate the sale of southern lands in MN to the Unites States resides on page 75 of the atlas In 1851, the signing of this treaty agreed that the Sisseton and Wahpeton Dakota tribes would sell 24 million acres of land, most of southern MN, to the United States in exchange for cash, annuities, and agricultural training The MN Historical Society has placed several kiosks around this site to explain its significance The Nicollet County Historical Society has built a Traverse de Sioux Interpretive Center nearby

22 L E S UEUR, MN In Le Sueur, you will find many industries such as warehouses, cheese factories, and canneries The Minnesota Valley Canning Company began its operations in Le Sueur in 1903 selling sweet creamed corn The Green Giant was introduced in 1903 as a promotional figure for the company’s peas. In 1950, the company adopted the name Green Giant General Mills bought-out Green Giant and the headquarters no longer exist in Le Sueur

23 T HE M AYO H OUSE The small white house located at 118 N Main Street in Le Sueur is where the founder of Green Giant once lived Perhaps more surprising is that the house was built by Dr. William Mayo, who practiced there for five years as his first medical practice location Dr. Mayo and his sons moved the practice to Rochester and expanded into Mayo Clinic, the largest and most famous medical facility in the world

24 D AKOTA C ONFLICT In 1862, the most violent battle in the state’s history occurred in the area between New Ulm and Redwood Falls, known as the MN River Valley The harvest of 1861 was poor, making it a harsh year for the Indians who found themselves in near starvation Tensions arose as agents refused to give the Indians food from the warehouses until annuity payments were made from Washington which were usually late The conflict sparked when an ignorant trader said, “if they are hungry, let them eat grass”

25 D AKOTA C ONFLICT Four young Dakota men attacked a farm in Meeker County, killing five white settlers Then groups of Dakota men launched a surprise attack on the Redwood Agency, killing agents, traders, and Indians, and looted and burned buildings They also attacked isolated farms, killed settlers, burned their belongings, as well as their houses and barns They then attacked Fort Ridgely and New Ulm On August 23, they attacked New Ulm again, nearly burning the whole town down The six week conflict ended on September 23, 1862, when a mobilized army defeated the Dakota at the battle of Wood Lake, and many Dakota fled to Canada 303 Dakota were captured and to be hanged, but Abraham Lincoln only approved of 38 to be hung Occurred in Mankato on the day after Christmas, making it the largest mass execution in American History

26 N EW U LM New Ulm was established by two German settlers, Ferdinand Beinhorn and Wilhelm Pfaender By 1860, the town was populated with Germans; and only 2 out of the 635 residents were not of German origin In the mid 20 th century, New Ulm was recognized as the Polka Capital in the United States In 2000, the city had a greater percentage of citizens with German decent than any other city in the U.S.

27 H ERMANN THE G ERMAN A statue of a Hermann who led the Germans in battle against the Romans in 7AD sits on top of a hill in New Ulm 102 ft tall Founded by the National Grand Lodge of the Sons of Hermann, a fraternal organization A second monument was put up in 1991 by the German Bohemian Heritage Society to honor the Bohemian immigrants in New Ulm Schell Brewery is a great way to get a sense of the German heritage in the town It is the second oldest family- owned brewery in the country Produces 38 different beers

28 H ARKIN S TORE Old store that is nestled in the woods Located in the town of West Newton, between New Ulm and Fort Ridgely Preserved because of the railroad route Closed in 1901 Much of the original merchandise still sits on the shelves The Minnesota Historical Society now manages the site

29 N EW U LM F ESTIVALS The city hosts several popular festivals throughout the year Fasching- a series of “crazy days” prior to Lent Bavarian Blast in July Oktoberfest during the first two weeks of October Visit Domeier’s (1020 S. Minnesota St.) to find an array of unique German and Bavarian souvenirs Fasching, New Ulm Oktoberfest, New Ulm Bavarian Blast, New Ulm

30 M INNEOPA S TATE P ARKS 2, 689 acres long 106, 800 annual visits Great site for bird watching Home to a large variety of songbird species Here you will find the eastern bluebird, the western meadowlark, and the yellow shafted flicker Established in 1905 after Minnesota passed legislation to set aside the area for public use This made Minneopa the third state park in MN The entire park sits on the banks of the Glacial River Warren The southern part of the park is very hilly and wooded One of the main features is the Minneopa Creek and its waterfalls

31 M OUNT K ATO Winter sports facility Offers skiing, snowboarding, snow tubing, and mountain biking There are 19 trails with 55 skiable acres Vertical drop of 240 feet

32 S AKATAH S INGING H ILLS 39 mile paved trail Construction on the trail began in 1974, which consisted of mostly gravel, and was then fully paved in 1995 Activities include: bicycling, snowmobiling, cross country skiing, walking, rollerblading, walking pets, bird watching and nature observation Maintained by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

33 F LANDRAU S TATE P ARK 1,006 acres 254,650 annual visits 22,351 overnight visits Common wildlife include many types of birds, white-tailed deer, and raccoons Landscape includes wooded riverside areas, oak forest and grassland areas along the bluffs Mainly a floodplain forest

34 Slide 17 Info Src: DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 18 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 19 Img Src: Slide 19 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 20 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 21 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 22 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 22 Img Src: Slide 23 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 23 Img Src: Slide 23 Img Src: Slide 24 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 25 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 26 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 26 Img Src: Slide 27 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 27 Img Src: Slide 27 Img Src: tour/http://mnprairieroots.wordpress.com/2010/08/28/learn-a-little-history-drink-a-little-beer-on-the-august-schell-brewing-company- tour/ Slide 28 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 28 Img Src: Slide 28 Img Src: Slide 29 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 29 Img Src: Slide 29 Img Src: Slide 29 Img Src: Slide 30 Info Src: Slide 30 Img Src: Slide 31 Info Src: Slide 31 Img Src: Slide 32 Info and Img Src: Slide 33 Info Src: Slide 33 Img Src: Slide 33 Img Src:

35 P AGE 55: B ACKGROUND This page lies in the northeastern part of the state It is part of the Heartland area It is made up of the Aitkin County Most notable is Lake Mille Lacs Other Sites: Mille Lacs Indian Museum Mille Lacs Kathio State Park Wealthwood State Forest Father Hennepin State Park Solana State Forest

36 D ISTRIBUTION OF G LACIAL L ANDFORMS The Superior and Rainy Lobe is responsible for creating much of the present landscape in northeastern Minnesota About 30,000 to 20,000 years ago, the Superior and Rainy Lobe made its way thru northeastern Minnesota, depositing brown and reddish till from the Superior Upland This till consisted of course, sandy fragments of tough old rocks The soils derived from this till are mostly used in dairy farming The Rainy Lobe scoured the Superior Upland The Superior Lobe is responsible for forming the thick, hummocky, boulder-strewn St. Croix Moraine The later advancements of the Superior Lobe formed the moraine that cups Mille Lacs

37 T HE H EARTLAND The heartland consists of many farms, ranches, hills, forests, rivers, bogs and lakes It is part of the Coniferous Forests Network of rivers and trails made the area easily accessible St. Croix, Rum, Mississippi, Crow Wing, and Ottertail Rivers Great history of lumbering and railroads Holds Minnesota’s largest reservations

38 According to the DeLorme atlas, page 55 consists mostly of Woodlands and Wetlands

39 A ITKIN The town of Aitkin got its name from an ambitious fur trader by the name of William Aitkin William Aitkin established trading posts at various strategic points in the area The town of Aitkin really came into being when the railroad reached the Mississippi from Duluth in 1870 Once the rail link to Aitkin had been established, the town flourished as a major supply base in the lumber industry Trains from Duluth brought supplies to Aitkin, and the materials and lumbermen were brought to camps along the Upper Mississippi River by means of steamboats

40 A ITKIN Five years after the town was founded, it had a population of 165, with all but 20 being men Soon after, immigrants came into Aitkin and cultivated the land Aitkin developed a bit of civilization, with church socials, public lectures on scholarly subjects, and even an opera house Aitkin remains a pleasant town and tourism center Explore its early history in the museum located in the preserved train station downtown Many festivities post-Thanksgiving Annual Fish House Parade, where decorated fish houses roll down MN Street on trailers The American Legion Chili Cook-Off Day-long craft fair Sample the Fish House Stew provided by a local Bank via Moose Lodge

41 F RANCIS L EE J ACQUES M USEUM Jacques was a famous landscape and wildlife painter and long-time resident of Aitkin You can see his works at the Jacques Art Center in downtown Aitkin He created many works for the Museum of Natural History in New York City, and also the Bell Museum of Natural History at the University of Minnesota Jacques was a farmer and also worked in other blue-collared occupations-lumberman, railroad hand, taxidermist As he spent a good deal of time in the forests and lakes, he would depict what he saw in drawings

42 R ICE L AKE N ATIONAL W ILDLIFE R EFUGE Located on Hwy 65, just South of McGregor This is an unusual natural environment that Jacques enjoyed exploring It is most known as a seasonal home to one of the largest populations of ring-necked ducks migrating in North America Also known for its cultivation of wild rice Kettle River runs through it There is a nine-mile stretch with several different habitats to explore along the drive

43 L AKE M ILLE L ACS A Mecca for fishing It’s the second-largest inland lake in Minnesota at 132,516 acres Premier walleye lake, with fish weighing in at ten pounds or more The lake is very shallow with a maximum depth of 42 feet The massive amounts of fish made the lake appealing to white explorers and fur traders Wild rice and maple sugar also came in abundance There were long disputes between the French, Ojibwe, and Dakota over who claimed the land

44 L AKE M ILLE LACS Ice-fishing began to gain popularity in the 1950s, and continued to grow into the recent decades There are times when more than eight-thousands fishing houses are planted on the ice These houses sit on timber frames with floors six inches off the ice The may have 4 to 6 fishing holes measuring eight to sixteen inches in diameter Offer propane gas heat, toilets, batter-powered stoves, microwaves, and color television

45 M ILLE L ACS I NDIAN M USEUM This museum is dedicated to the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe, and offers many permanent exhibits relating to the band It opened on May 18, 1996 and is run by the MN Historical Society In February of 2005, they celebrated the 150 th anniversary of the Treaty of 1855, which established the Mille Lacs Reservation

46 M ILLE L ACS K ATHIO S TATE P ARK 10,585 acres 133,127 annual visits This park will give you the sense of what the first settlers found so appealing about the Mille Lacs area It contains the site of where Kathio once stood It is Minnesota’s fourth-largest park and offers hiking, camping, swimming, and horseback riding You can get information relying the park and the history of the town of Kathio at the interpretive center

47 W EALTHWOOD S TATE F OREST 15, 042 acres Established in 1963 Rolling topography with small wetlands and strands of mixed hardwoods In its history, the land was seen as very valuable for timber production The Minnesota legislature enlarged the original size in 1963 to the current 15, 042 acres in 2000

48 F ATHER H ENNEPIN S TATE P ARK 320 acres 130,086 annual visits 26,359 overnight visits Named after Father Louis Hennepin, a priest who visited the area with a French expedition in 1680 He wrote intensively about the Mille Lacs area He called the area Louisiana after King Louis XIV His journal of meeting with Dakota and the landscape of the area are written in the book, Description of Louisiana, published in 1683 The Rainy and Superior lobe are responsible for the forest, bogs, and swamps in the area

49 Slide 35 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 36 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 36 Img Src: Slide 37 Info Src: Slide 37 Info Src: Slide 38 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 39 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 40 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 40 Img Src: Slide 41 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 41 Info Src: Slide 42 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 43 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 43 Img Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 43 Img Src: Slide 44 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 44 Img Src: Slide 44 Img Src: Slide 45 Info Src :http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/state_parks/mille_lacs_kathio/index.htmlhttp://www.dnr.state.mn.us/state_parks/mille_lacs_kathio/index.html Slide 45 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 45 Img Src: Slide 46 Info Src: Slide 46 Img Src: &longitude= &longitude=- Slide 47 Info Src: Slide 47 Img Src: Day11MilleLacsSign.JPG Day11MilleLacsSign.JPG Slide 48 Info Src:

50 P AGE 34: B ACKGROUND This page is further up north and to the east than the previous page we just explored It lies in the St. Louis County the second-largest county in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains Larger than the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island combined Sits in the Mesabi Range (Iron Range) Major Cities: Hibbing and Virginia Sites: Superior National Forest Sturgeon River State Forest Sturgeon River Trail George Washington State Forest McCarthy Beach State Park Laurentian Divide

51 T HE L AND Page 34 is mostly made up of coniferous forest and wetlands This corner of the state was the last occupied by settlers, and consisted of many different immigrants You will find many Slavs and Finns here than any other part of the state This part of the state is transitory due to its mining On the lower part of page 34, you will find many areas marked with a “Mine or Quarry” symbol (see legend)

52 I RON R ANGES Minnesota has three iron ranges : Vermillion Range- extends 25 miles from Tower to Ely, and had ore with 63 to 70 percent iron Mesabi Range- stretches more than 100 miles long from Grand Rapids to Babbitt and south of Virginia, with ore containing 55 to 60 percent iron Cuyuna Range- is entirely in eastern Crow Wing County and had ore with 45 to 63 percent iron. This ore was rich in manganese, which is essential for producing steel Together, these three ranges accumulated 3 billion tons of iron ore The Mesabi Range cuts across the lower part of page 34

53 I RON R ANGE Prospectors and engineers had long suspected that the old rocks beneath the wilderness near Duluth would contain valuable deposits of ore, just as similar rocks of pure copper were found by Indians on the Keeweenaw Peninsula and Marquette, Michigan These rocks came from Lake Superior in northern Michigan Native tribes have been extracting copper for over 5000 years The first iron mines in Minnesota opened along the Vermillion Range From 1900 to 1980, the Mesabi Range contributed about 60 percent of the nation’s iron ore

54 T HE G OLD R USH In 1865, the state of MN hired a geologist to examine the area around Lake Vermilion for iron The geologist found something far more valuable—gold! This started the state’s first and only gold rush A rode from Duluth to the southern shore of a remote lake was constructed A town developed with saloons, dry good stores, and boarding houses Unfortunately, there was no gold to be found, and the gold rush quickly came to an end

55 H IBBING Sometimes considered the center of the Iron Range Largest town in the area and sits at the heart of the Mesabi Range The town was discovered by a German immigrant named Frans Hibbing Worked in real estate in Duluth, and also studied mineral exploration In 1892, he and a group of 30 men went into the Range and found ore deposits The next summer, the town site was platted, and named in honor of Frans Hibbing He returned the favor by financing the construction of a water plant, and electric plant, roads, a bank, a sawmill, and a hotel via personal funds

56 R EVENUES FROM THE I RON R ANGE The Iron Range produced a great revenue for the surrounding area Many towns on the Iron Range had more lavish parks, schools, and community buildings than the norm, due to the property taxes brought in from the mining companies The Hibbing Taconite Company still extracts eight million tons of ore each year The Mesabi Range currently produces 75% of the iron ore mined in the United States

57 The ore extracted from the Mesabi Range produced massive amounts of steel This steel helped produce a number of cars, airplanes, tanks, appliances, computers, cables, and many other steel appliances

58 T HE H ULL R UST M INE Located on the outskirts of Hibbing Known as the world’s largest open pit mine, this enormous hole in the ground stretches more than three miles long, up to two miles wide, and 600 feet deep It was the first mine opened in the Mesabi Range In 1895, more than 1.4 billion tons of earth was removed form it At its peak operations, it produced more than a quarter of all the ore mined in the United States

59 P LACES TO V ISIT To get a glimpse of the Iron Range life, head down to the Sunrise Bakery ( rd Ave E) Sample some of the miner’s favorites such as Pasties- a Cornish meat pie, Potica- a traditional Slovenian nut bread, or Porketta- a Range favorite of rolled pork roast

60 B OB D YLAN Bob Dylan was born in Duluth in 1941 but grew up in Hibbing once his family moved there when he was eleven You can drive by Dylan’s boyhood home, located on the corner of 25 th Street and 7 th Ave. E Stop by Moose Lodge on a Friday for some fish fry and see the venue where Dylan and his band use to play Zimmys, a restaurant located on Howard Street, offers a memorabilia of Dylan and some good eats The Hibbing Public Library features a Bob Dylan exhibit in the basement, with rare yearbook photos and posters

61 L AURENTIAN D IVIDE Just outside of Hibbing, you will find a unique geographical interest—a Laurentian Divide (located on page 34 in the lower right corner where Hwy 106 and Hwy 169 meet) It marks the spot where three watersheds meet Hudson’s Bay Gulf of Mexico North Atlantic You will see many Laurentian Divide signs throughout the northern areas of the state This spot marks one of only two divides in the country where not two, but three drainage systems meet

62 B US I NDUSTRY Hibbing is home to the American bus industry Two local entrepreneurs, Carl Wickman and Andrew “Bus Andy” Anderson, started a bus line in 1914 Purpose was to provide transportation for iron miners back-and-forth from Hibbing to the nearby town of Alice The first buses could only carry a few people, but once the service became more popular, new routes were added, and the businessmen expanded there operations little by little into what is now the Greyhound Bus Line In 1989, the Greyhound Bus Museum opened in Hibbing to celebrate the astonishing chapter in the nation’s transportation history

63 V IRGINIA Virginia has placed pride on itself for having a touch of class not found in its neighboring towns The main business district burned down twice during the early years, but the town picked itself up from the devastation both times When a lumber baron named Frederick Weyerhauser established the Virginia and Rainy Lake Lumber Company in 1908, its mill was the largest and most modern in the world The mill covered a square mile of land Employed 3000 lumberjacks and 1,800 workers at the mill It closed in 1929, signifying the end of a golden era in white pine logging

64 V IRGINIA M INING Virginia was also rich in mining, with 20 mines operating simultaneously The Messabe Mountain Mine in Virginia was the largest mine in the world at that time Because of the wealth generated by the mines, people started to refer to the city as “The Queen City of the North” and the name is still retained today Virginia, MN

65 V IRGINIA - S ITES The appealing Chestnut Street downtown is lined with store fronts and marquees from past periods At the west end of Chestnut Street, you will find a train station in a three-story orange building, which now houses a bank built in 1913 Virginia was a large rail center, with four railroads running twenty trains a day in and out of the city A “Lumberjack Express” also ran from Virginia to Cusson, hauling forest workers to their appointed destinations The final passenger train left the Virginia station in 1961

66 Slide 50 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 51 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 52 Info Src: Landscapes of Minnesota: Hart, John Slide 53 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 53 Img Src: Slide 53 Img Src: Slide 54 Img Src: Slide 55 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 56 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 56 Img Src: KDnUgg/Td7AHz_ruqI/AAAAAAAABCI/nsKNPzHCKhc/s1600/2.jpghttp://1.bp.blogspot.com/-KxL7 KDnUgg/Td7AHz_ruqI/AAAAAAAABCI/nsKNPzHCKhc/s1600/2.jpg Slide 56 Img Src: Slide 57 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 57 Img Src: Slide 57 Img Src: Slide 58 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 58 Img Src: Slide 58 Img Src: Slide 59 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 59 Img Src: Slide 59 Img Src: Slide 59 Img Src: Slide 60 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 60 Img Src: Slide 61 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 61 Img Src: Slide 62 Info Src : The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 62 Img Src: Slide 62 Img Src: Slide 63 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 63 Img Src: Slide 63 Img Src: Slide 64 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John Slide 64 Img Src: Slide 65 Info Src: The Seven States of Minnesota: Toren, John


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